Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Rare childhood bone disorder linked to gene deletion in two Navajo patients

18.07.2002

Two seemingly unrelated Native American children have one painful thing in common: juvenile Paget’s disease (JPD), an extremely rare, bone metabolism disorder. Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Shriners Hospitals for Children, St. Louis, have discovered that the two patients also share an unusual genetic defect. The research team found that both patients are completely missing the gene for a recently discovered protein called osteoprotegerin, known to protect bone. The study is the first to identify a genetic cause for JPD and is published in the July 18 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

"By identifying this genetic defect in two people, our results not only provide insight into the cause of JPD, but also shed light on the control of bone metabolism in general," says lead investigator Michael P. Whyte, M.D., professor of medicine, genetics, and pediatrics at the School of Medicine and director of the Center for Metabolic Bone Disease and Molecular Research at Shriners Hospitals for Children. "Understanding how the skeleton forms and breaks down is key to developing ways to diagnose and treat bone disorders in children and adults, including adult Paget’s disease and osteoporosis."

JPD, also known as hereditary hyperphosphatasia or hyperostosis corticalis deformans juvenilis, has only been reported in about 40 people worldwide. It is a painful skeletal disease characterized by abnormally fast formation and breakdown of bone throughout the body, resulting in debilitating fractures and deformities beginning soon after birth. These features are similar to the much more common adult disease called Paget’s disease of bone, the second most prevalent metabolic bone disorder after osteoporosis. However, JPD appears to affect all bones in the body, whereas Paget’s disease of bone involves only a select few.

The Washington University and Shriners team examined DNA samples from two Native Americans. The first was referred to St. Louis from New Mexico in 1996 for confirmation of diagnosis and treatment at one year of age. The team later learned that a second JPD patient, described in the medical literature in 1979, also was living in New Mexico. The second patient contacted the investigators and voluntarily sent her blood samples for genetic study.

The team first evaluated the gene for RANK in these two patients. In a previous collaborative study, they had identified a RANK defect as the cause of three other rare but somewhat similar genetic bone disorders also characterized by accelerated bone metabolism. The two Navajo patients, however, had normal RANK genes.

The researchers next tested the gene that makes osteoprotegerin, a protein discovered only a few years ago. Osteoprotegerin is related functionally to RANK and recent studies have found that mice lacking the protein have a condition where bone formation and breakdown is rapid, seemingly similar to osteoporosis.

The results were surprising. Neither patient had any trace of the gene for osteoprotegerin.

"At first we thought there must be something wrong with our DNA studies," says Steven Mumm, Ph.D., research assistant professor of medicine at the School of Medicine and one of the lead investigators of the study. "Instead, we realized this was a major finding."

Genetic analysis of healthy individuals confirmed the expected presence of two copies, or alleles, of the gene for osteoprotegerin. However, analysis of the JPD patients’ healthy parents revealed that each had only one copy of the gene. Furthermore, no osteoprotegerin was found in the blood of the two patients with JPD. The researchers conclude that these results provide both a cause and a mechanism for this rare bone disease, at least for these two Native Americans.

Thanks to simultaneous advances in the Human Genome Project, centered in part at Washington University, the team was able to pinpoint exactly where DNA had broken off in these two patients.

Again, the results were startling: The genetic damage was identical in both patients. The researchers therefore conclude that these two patients likely share a common ancestor, perhaps dating back a century.

"In a way, this also is a sociology story," says Whyte. "Our findings appear to represent the emergence of a "founder effect" in this population that underwent a "bottleneck" constriction years ago. The Navajo Nation decreased from about several hundred thousand individuals to about 6 thousand in the 1860s. As the population then re-grew, the missing gene apparently was passed on to their offspring. Eventually, people with only one copy of the osteoprotegerin gene married and had children with no copies of the gene."

The team now is evaluating other patients worldwide with varying forms of JPD, who so far do not appear to have any defects in the osteoprotegerin gene.

According to Whyte, this research will not only enable prenatal diagnosis for JPD in the Navajo population, but also suggests that osteoprotegerin may be a potential treatment for these affected individuals. They also expect their findings to help elucidate the role of osteoprotegerin and other key proteins in bone formation and breakdown, shedding light on Paget’s disease of bone, osteoporosis and other common metabolic bone disorders.

Gila Z. Reckess | EurekAlert

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Custom-tailored strategy against glioblastomas
26.09.2016 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht New leukemia treatment offers hope
23.09.2016 | King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New welding process joins dissimilar sheets better

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...

Im Focus: First quantum photonic circuit with electrically driven light source

Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.

Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

European Health Forum Gastein 2016 kicks off today

28.09.2016 | Event News

Laser use for neurosurgery and biofabrication - LaserForum 2016 focuses on medical technology

27.09.2016 | Event News

Experts from industry and academia discuss the future mobile telecommunications standard 5G

23.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

A perfect sun-storm

28.09.2016 | Earth Sciences

New welding process joins dissimilar sheets better

28.09.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

European Health Forum Gastein 2016 kicks off today

28.09.2016 | Event News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>