Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New research sets stage for noninvasive monitoring of HIV-induced peripheral neuropathy

12.05.2014

Corneal nerve fiber assessment proposed for managing patients with HIV-induced peripheral neuropathy, according to The American Journal of Pathology

Corneal nerve fiber assessment has great potential as a tool to diagnose and monitor peripheral neuropathy induced by HIV, say scientists at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. The results of their study are published in The American Journal of Pathology.

Although corneal nerve assessments have shown increasingly valuable as a replacement for epidermal nerve fiber evaluation in diabetic peripheral neuropathy, the evaluation of corneal alterations in tracking HIV-induced neuropathy has yet to be explored.

"The cornea is the most densely innervated tissue in the body, so corneal nerve assessment is extremely sensitive for detecting small sensory nerve fiber damage as compared to other tests including measurement of intra-epidermal nerve fibers in the skin," notes lead investigator Joseph L. Mankowski, DVM, PhD, who is Professor of Molecular and Comparative Pathobiology, Pathology, and Neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

... more about:
»HIV »Medicine »Pathology »SIV »biopsy »damage »progression »skin

Although not life threatening, HIV-induced peripheral neuropathy greatly compromises patient quality of life. Currently, skin biopsy is the accepted standard for measuring the loss of small, unmyelinated C fibers in the epidermis, one of the earliest detectable signs of peripheral nerve damage. However, skin biopsy is an invasive procedure, and ongoing assessment requires repeated surgical procedures.

Electrophysiological testing to measure peripheral nerve conduction properties is not a viable alternative because current methods lack the sensitivity required to detect damage to small, unmyelinated fibers, especially in early stages of disease. Therefore, new sensitive, noninvasive methods of assessing small fiber nerve damage are urgently needed to detect and monitor peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected individuals.

To study the pathogenesis of HIV-induced PNS disease, Jamie Dorsey, Research Technologist, and the research team led by Dr. Mankowski developed a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque model that closely reflects key peripheral nervous system (PNS) alterations seen in HIV patients with peripheral neuropathy. They sought to determine whether SIV infection leads to decreases in corneal nerve fiber density, and whether corneal nerve fiber density correlates with epidermal nerve fiber length counts, thereby setting the stage for follow-up investigation using corneal confocal microscopy.

"Moving to non-invasive and repeatable methods of nerve fiber measurements such as in vivo corneal confocal microscopy would enhance study of peripheral neuropathy by enabling early detection of damage, progression of nerve fiber deterioration, and enable assessment of therapeutic strategies in the SIV/macaque model," explains Dr. Mankowski. "Furthermore, adapting in vivo corneal confocal microscopy for use in tracking HIV-induced PNS damage in patients may be of great value to identify early PNS damage independent of performing skin biopsies."

To determine whether SIV infection leads to corneal nerve fiber loss, the researchers immunostained corneas for the nerve fiber marker βIII tubulin. They developed and applied both manual and automated methods developed by Jonathan Oakley, PhD, of Voxeleron to measure nerves in the corneal sub-basal plexus. These counting methods independently demonstrated significantly lower sub-basal corneal nerve fiber density among SIV-infected animals that rapidly progressed to AIDS as compared to slow progressors. Corneal nerve fiber density was also directly correlated with epidermal nerve fiber length.

Besides decreased corneal nerve fiber density, rapid SIV progressors had increased levels of SIV RNA, CD68-positive macrophages, and GFAP expression by glial satellite cells in the trigeminal ganglia, the location of the neuronal cell bodies of corneal sensory nerve fibers.

Together, these findings demonstrate that emerging noninvasive techniques to measure corneal nerve fiber alterations such as in vivo corneal confocal microscopy may be useful clinical tools to screen for and monitor progression of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected patients.

Eileen Leahy | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.elsevier.com

Further reports about: HIV Medicine Pathology SIV biopsy damage progression skin

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Custom-tailored strategy against glioblastomas
26.09.2016 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht New leukemia treatment offers hope
23.09.2016 | King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

Im Focus: Launch of New Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing

At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.

In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...

Im Focus: New laser joining technologies at ‘K 2016’ trade fair

Every three years, the plastics industry gathers at K, the international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will also be attending again and presenting many innovative technologies, such as for joining plastics and metals using ultrashort pulse lasers. From October 19 to 26, you can find the Fraunhofer ILT at the joint Fraunhofer booth SC01 in Hall 7.

K is the world’s largest trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. As in previous years, the organizers are expecting 3,000 exhibitors and more than...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Experts from industry and academia discuss the future mobile telecommunications standard 5G

23.09.2016 | Event News

ICPE in Graz for the seventh time

20.09.2016 | Event News

Using mathematical models to understand our brain

16.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stronger turbine blades with molybdenum silicides

26.09.2016 | Materials Sciences

Scientists Find Twisting 3-D Raceway for Electrons in Nanoscale Crystal Slices

26.09.2016 | Materials Sciences

Lowering the Heat Makes New Materials Possible While Saving Energy

26.09.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>