Scientists at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital-The Neuro, McGill University, have made important discoveries about a cellular process that occurs during normal brain development and may play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases.
The study’s findings, published in Cell Reports, a leading scientific journal, point to new pathways and targets for novel therapies for Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases that affect millions of people world-wide.
Research into neurodegenerative disease has traditionally concentrated on the death of nerve cell bodies. However, it is now certain that in most cases that nerve cell body death represents the final event of an extended disease process. Studies have shown that protecting cell bodies from death has no impact on disease progression whereas blocking preceding axon breakdown has a significant benefit. The new study by researchers at The Neuro shifts the focus to the loss or degeneration of axons, the nerve-cell ‘branches’ that receive and distribute neurochemical signals among neurons.
During early development, axons are pruned to ensure normal growth of the nervous system. Emerging evidence suggests that this pruning process becomes reactivated in neurodegenerative disease, leading to the aberrant loss of axons and dendrites. Axonal pruning in development is significantly influenced by proteins called caspases. “The idea that caspases are even involved in axonal degeneration during development is very recent” said Dr. Philip Barker, a principal investigator at The Neuro and senior author of the study.
Dr. Barker and his colleagues show that the activity of certain ’executioner’ caspases (caspase-3 and caspase-9) induce axonal degeneration and that their action is suppressed by a protein termed XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis). “We found that caspase-3- and -9 play crucial roles in axonal degeneration and that their activities are regulated by XIAP. XIAP acts as a brake on caspase activity and must be removed for degeneration to proceed” added Dr. Barker.
This balancing act between caspases and XIAP ensure that caspases do not cause unnecessary or excessive destruction. However, this balance may shift during neurodegenerative disease. “If we understand the pathways that regulate XIAP levels, we may be able to develop therapies that reduce caspase-dependent degeneration during neurodegenerative disease”.
Contact: Anita Kar, Communications Officer, The Neuro (514) 398-3376 or email@example.com
The Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital — The Neuro, is a unique academic medical centre dedicated to neuroscience. Founded in 1934 by the renowned Dr. Wilder Penfield, the Neuro is recognized internationally for integrating research, compassionate patient care and advanced training, all key to advances in science and medicine. The Neuro is a research and teaching institute of McGill University and forms the basis for the Neuroscience Mission of the McGill University Health Centre. Neuro researchers are world leaders in cellular and molecular neuroscience, brain imaging, cognitive neuroscience and the study and treatment of epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and neuromuscular disorders. For more information, visit theneuro.com
Anita Kar | EurekAlert!
NIST scientists discover how to switch liver cancer cell growth from 2-D to 3-D structures
17.11.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
High speed video recording precisely measures blood cell velocity
15.11.2017 | ITMO University
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
20.11.2017 | Earth Sciences
20.11.2017 | Earth Sciences
20.11.2017 | Life Sciences