Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New link between pollution, temperature and sleep-disordered breathing

15.06.2010
Researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Harvard School of Public Health have established the first link between air pollution and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), a known cause of cardiovascular diseases.

Antonella Zanobetti, Ph.D., Susan Redline, MD, MPH, Diane Gold, M.D., M.P.H. and colleagues explored the link between air pollution levels, temperature increases and sleep-disordered breathing using data from the Sleep Heart Health Study, which included more than 6,000 participants between 1995 and 1998, and EPA air pollution monitoring data from Framingham (Massachusetts), Minneapolis, New York City, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Sacramento, and Tucson.

The study appears online ahead of the print edition of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine on the American Thoracic Society's Web site.

SDB affects up to 17 percent of U.S. adults, many of whom are not aware that they have a problem. Air pollution is also an endemic issue in many of the nation's urban areas. Both SDB and pollution have been associated with a range of health problems, including increased cardiovascular mortality. "The influence of air pollution on SDB is poorly understood," said Dr. Zanobetti. "Our hypothesis was that elevation in ambient air pollution would be associated with an increased risk of SDB and nocturnal hypoxia, as well as with reduced sleep quality." The researchers further hypothesized that seasonal variations in temperature would exert an independent effect on SDB and sleep efficiency.

To test their hypotheses, the researchers used linear regression models that controlled for seasonality, mean temperature and other factors known to be associated with SDB, such as age, gender and smoking.

To examine the role of seasons, they performed a separate analysis, adding the interaction of season with the level of air pollution in the form of particulate matter under 10 ìm, which is commonly associated with traffic. They evaluated long-term effects by computing the moving 365-day average of PM10.

In total, they included more than 3,000 individuals in their analysis.

"We found novel evidence for pollution and temperature effects on sleep-disordered breathing," said Dr. Zanobetti. "Increases in apnea or hypopnea…were associated with increases in short-term temperature over all seasons, and with increases in particle pollution levels in the summer months."

Over all seasons, the researchers found that short-term elevations in temperature were associated with increased in Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI), which was used to gauge the severity of SDB. In the summer, increases in PM10 were also associated with an increase in RDI (representing a 12.9 percent increase), as well as with an increase in the percent of time that blood oxygen saturation levels fell below 90 percent (representing a nearly 20 percent increase) and a decrease in sleep efficiency. There were no such statistically significant associations of particulate pollution with SDB in other seasons.

This is the first study to link pollution exposure and SDB.

"Particles may influence sleep through effects on the central nervous system, as well as the upper airways," wrote Dr. Zanobetti. "…Poor sleep [associated with poor health outcomes] may disproportionately afflict poor urban populations. Our findings suggest that one mechanism for poor sleep and sleep health disparities may relate to environmental pollution levels."

Other research has found an association between elevation in pollution and increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). There is a known overlap between etiologic factors for SIDS and SDB. Given the results of the current research, "the mechanisms that increase the risk of SIDS in associations with ambient pollutants may be similar to the mechanisms that underlie the risk of SDB…,[which] may include pollutant-associated effects on central or peripheral neurotransmitters that influence sleep-state stability," said Dr. Zanobetti.

Several studies have also reported that temperature predicts mortality. "The association we found between short-term temperature and RDI could represent one possible mechanism by which changes across the range of temperature could predict mortality," said Dr. Zanobetti.

Perhaps most importantly, the prevalence of SDB in the United States may increase as obesity rises. "While therapies are available for the disorder, the majority of adults with SDB are not being treated and many people are resistant to therapy," said Dr. Zanobetti. "Along with reduction in obesity, these new data suggest that reduction in air pollution exposure might decrease severity of SDB and nocturnal hypoxia and may improve cardiac risk."

John Heffner, M.D., past president of the American Thoracic Society observed, "This study gains even greater importance as scientists increasingly demonstrate the critical importance of sleep to health and well being. SDB increases risks for cardiovascular disease, strokes and other major health conditions. Air pollution is an independent contributor to most of these disorders and may produce its negative health effects by promoting SDB as an intermediary step in the pathway toward disease."

This study was funded by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the Environmental Protection Agency.

Link to podcast: http://www.thoracic.org/newsroom/press-releases/journal/podcast/061510-zanobetti.mp3

Keely Savoie | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.thoracic.rog

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology
07.12.2016 | Nanyang Technological University

nachricht How to turn white fat brown
07.12.2016 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

The balancing act: An enzyme that links endocytosis to membrane recycling

07.12.2016 | Life Sciences

How to turn white fat brown

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>