Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Immunotherapy effective against neuroblastoma in children

18.05.2009
New therapy improves chances of living disease-free with difficult-to-treat childhood cancer

A phase III study has shown that adding an antibody-based therapy that harnesses the body's immune system resulted in a 20 percent increase in the number of children living disease-free for at least two years with neuroblastoma.

Neuroblastoma, a hard-to-treat cancer arising from nervous system cells, is responsible for 15 percent of cancer-related deaths in children. The researchers reported their findings – the first to show that immunotherapy could be effective against childhood cancer – online May 14, 2009 on the American Society of Clinical Oncology website in advance of presentation June 2.

"This establishes a new standard of care for a traditionally very difficult cancer in children," said lead author Alice Yu, MD, PhD, professor of pediatric hematology/oncology at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and the Moores UCSD Cancer Center. "High-risk neuroblastoma has always been a frustrating cancer to treat because, despite aggressive therapy, it has a high relapse rate."

The therapy targets a specific glycan (a complex sugar chain found on the surface of cells) on neuroblastoma cells called GD2, which inhibit the immune system from killing cancer cells. The antibody – ch14.18 – binds to this glycan, enabling various types of immune cells to attack the cancer.

Neuroblastoma – in which the cancer cells arise from nerve cells in the neck, chest, or abdomen – is the most common cancer diagnosed in the first year of life. Approximately 650 new cases of neuroblastoma are diagnosed in this country every year, and about 40 percent of patients have high-risk neuroblastoma. These high-risk patients are usually treated with surgery, intensive chemotherapy with stem cell rescue (in which patients' adult stem cells, removed before treatment, are returned after chemotherapy to restore the blood and immune system), and radiation therapy. Still, only 30 percent of patients survive.

Yu and her colleagues compared both the percentage of patients who were still alive without experiencing a recurrence after two years as well as overall survival in two groups of 113 patients each. Patients began the trial when they were newly diagnosed with high-risk neuroblastoma. After conventional treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, stem cell rescue and radiotherapy, one group was given the standard treatment (retinoic acid) plus immunotherapy (the antibody plus immune-boosting substances), while 113 similar patients received the standard treatment alone.

After two years, 66 percent of individuals in the immunotherapy group were living free of cancer compared to 46 percent in the standard treatment group. Overall survival improved significantly as well. The trial patient randomization was halted early because of the benefit seen, and all patients enrolled in the trial will receive immunotherapy plus standard treatment.

Yu noted that the two-year mark is especially important because past trials have shown that those neuroblastoma patients who live without disease for two years after a stem cell transplant will most likely be cured.

"This is the first time in many years that we have been able to improve the 'cure rate' for neuroblastoma patients," she said. "This new therapy can help us improve care and perhaps offer new hope to many patients and families."

Yu and her team conducted the early phase I and phase II trials at the General Clinical Research Center at UC San Diego Medical Center.

Other co-authors include Andrew Gilman, Carolinas Medical Centre; M. Fevzi Ozkaynak, New York Medical College; Susan Cohn, University of Chicago; John Maris, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Paul Sondel, University of Wisconsin; W. B. London, University of Florida; S. Kreissman, Duke University; H.X. Chen, National Cancer Institute; and K.K. Matthay, UCSD. Local patients were seen in San Diego at Rady Children's Hospital.

The Moores UCSD Cancer Center is one of the nation's 41 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, combining research, clinical care and community outreach to advance the prevention, treatment and cure of cancer.

Steve Benowitz | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucsd.edu
http://health.ucsd.edu/cancer

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Nanoparticles as a Solution against Antibiotic Resistance?
15.12.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

nachricht Plasmonic biosensors enable development of new easy-to-use health tests
14.12.2017 | Aalto University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: First-of-its-kind chemical oscillator offers new level of molecular control

DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors.

Researchers have created chemical amplifiers and a chemical oscillator using a systematic method that has the potential to embed sophisticated circuit...

Im Focus: Long-lived storage of a photonic qubit for worldwide teleportation

MPQ scientists achieve long storage times for photonic quantum bits which break the lower bound for direct teleportation in a global quantum network.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor...

Im Focus: Electromagnetic water cloak eliminates drag and wake

Detailed calculations show water cloaks are feasible with today's technology

Researchers have developed a water cloaking concept based on electromagnetic forces that could eliminate an object's wake, greatly reducing its drag while...

Im Focus: Scientists channel graphene to understand filtration and ion transport into cells

Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.

To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...

Im Focus: Towards data storage at the single molecule level

The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.

Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

AKL’18: The opportunities and challenges of digitalization in the laser industry

07.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Engineers program tiny robots to move, think like insects

15.12.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

One in 5 materials chemistry papers may be wrong, study suggests

15.12.2017 | Materials Sciences

New antbird species discovered in Peru by LSU ornithologists

15.12.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>