Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Genes and smoking play role in rheumatoid arthritis

04.06.2009
News from Arthritis & Rheumatism

Recent genetic studies have revealed several new sites of genes that are risk factors for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

The strongest association with anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive RA (ACPAs are autoantibodies detected in RA that are used as a major diagnostic tool) has been found for the HLA-DRB1 gene, and this site seems to play a central role in susceptibility to the disease in Caucasian populations.

Previous studies have shown a high increase in the risk of ACPA-positive RA associated with smoking in those who have certain variations of the HLA-DRB1 gene. There are several types of such alleles related to a particular amino acid sequence known as shared epitope (SE). ACPAs occur in about 60 percent of RA patients and are closely linked to the presence of SE alleles. In fact, SE alleles are the strongest genetic risk factor for ACPA-positive RA.

Of several environmental factors that predispose people toward developing RA, smoking has been found to be the main risk factor and a strong gene-environment interaction between smoking and SE alleles for ACPA-positive patients has been shown in previous studies in Europe. Results in North America have not been as conclusive, however. A new large population-based study examined the gene-environment interaction between smoking and SE alleles in RA and found that all SE alleles strongly interact with smoking in conferring an increased risk of ACPA-positive RA. The study was published in the June issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/76509746/home).

Led by Emeli Lundström of Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, the study consisted of genetic analysis of 1,319 RA cases and 943 controls in Sweden and included Caucasian smokers and non-smokers. Researchers set out to determine whether all HLA-DRB1 SE alleles demonstrated a similar gene-environment interaction or if the interaction was restricted to a particular DRB1 SE group. A total of 972 cases and 488 controls were SE positive.

"Our data illustrate that regardless of the fine specificity of the SE alleles of DRB1, the interaction between these genetic risk factors and smoking is evident," the authors state.

Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the risk and interaction of smoking and SE alleles are incompletely understood, there are several possible explanations. One is that long-term exposure to cigarette smoke may accelerate the modification of arginine into citrulline in autoantigens present in the lungs, enhancing an immune response in individuals carrying the SE alleles. Another possibility is that substances present in smoke may trigger the innate immune system to contribute to the development of arthritis. It may also be that an as yet undetermined genetic factor (factors) plays a role or that there is a genetic interaction between the HLA-DRB1 gene and the gene involved in the behavior that includes smoking.

The authors conclude that while SE alleles do not seem to confer an increased risk of ACPA-negative RA either on their own or in combination with smoking, all SE DRB1 alleles strongly interact with smoking in the development of ACPA-positive RA.

Article: "Gene-Environment Interaction Between the DRB1 Shared Epitope and Smoking Regarding the Risk of Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibody-Positive Rheumatoid Arthritis," Emeli Lundström, Henrik Källberg, Lars Alfredsson, Lars Klareskog, Leonid Padyukov, Arthritis & Rheumatism, June 2009.

Sean Wagner | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Researchers release the brakes on the immune system
18.10.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells
12.10.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>