Researchers at The Forsyth Institute have made a significant discovery about the nature of childhood dental disease. The scientific studies led by Anne Tanner, BDS, Ph.D., identified a new pathogen connected to severe early childhood caries (cavities).
This bacterium, Scardovia wiggsiae, was present in the mouths of children with severe early childhood caries when other known pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans were not detected. This research may offer the potential to intervene and halt the progression of disease.
Early childhood caries, ECC, is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood in the United States. Severe ECC can destroy primary teeth, cause painful abscesses and is the major reason for hospital visits for young children. This condition disproportionately affects disadvantaged socio-economic groups. This research, which will be published in the April issue of Journal of Clinical Microbiology, provides new insight on the microbiota of severe early childhood caries.
Dental caries is caused by an interaction between bacteria, host susceptibility and a carbohydrate diet that contains large amounts of sugar. Dr. Tanner published an updated evaluation of the diet associated with severe-ECC in collaboration with Dr. Carole Palmer at Tufts University in the Journal of Dental Research in 2010. The bacterial species Streptococcus mutans is widely recognized as the primary pathogen in early childhood caries. However, it is also present in people without disease and is not detected in all cases of childhood caries. This suggests that other species such as S. wiggsiae are also disease causing pathogens.
"In my work, I have seen the tremendous public health impact of severe early childhood caries," said. Dr. Anne Tanner, Senior Member of Staff, Department of Molecular Genetics, The Forsyth Institute.
"Understanding the causes of severe dental decay in young children is the first step in identifying an effective cure."
Summary of Study
Severe early childhood caries (ECC), while strongly associated with Streptococcus mutans using selective detection methods (culture, PCR), has also been associated with other bacteria using molecular cloning approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of severe-ECC using anaerobic culture. The microbial composition of dental plaque from 42 severe-ECC children was compared with that of caries-free children. Bacterial samples were cultured anaerobically on blood and acid (pH 5) agars. Isolates were purified, and partial sequences for the 16S rRNA gene were obtained from 5608 isolates. Sequence based analysis of the 16S rRNA isolate libraries from blood and acid agars of severe-ECC and caries-free children had >90% population coverage with greater diversity in the blood isolate library. Isolate sequences were compared with taxa sequences in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) and 198 HOMD taxa were identified, including 45 previously uncultivated taxa, 29 extended HOMD taxa and 45 potential novel groups. The major species associated with severe-ECC included Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Veillonella parvula, Streptococcus cristatus and Actinomyces gerensceriae. S. wiggsiae was significantly associated with severe-ECC children in the presence and absence of S. mutans. Dr. Tanner and her team conclude that anaerobic culture detected as wide a diversity of species in ECC as observed using cloning approaches. Culture coupled with 16S rRNA identification identified over 74 isolates for human oral taxa without previously cultivated representatives. The major caries-associated species were S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, the latter of which is a candidate as a newly recognized caries pathogen.
This study was conducted with collaborators at the Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, and Tufts University School of Dental Medicine and with Dr. Floyd Dewhirst and resources of the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) at Forsyth Institute. HOMD links several types of information on oral microbes to a consistent naming system. HOMD contains descriptions of the microbes, their metabolism, and their ability to cause disease along with information on their DNA and proteins, as well as to the scientific literature.
The Forsyth Institute is the world's leading independent organization dedicated to scientific research and education in oral health and related biomedical sciences. Established in 1910, Forsyth's goal is to lead the discovery, communication and application of breakthroughs in oral health and disease prevention that will significantly improve the health and well-being of the nation and the world. For more information about Forsyth visit its website at www.forsyth.org.
Jennifer Kelly | EurekAlert!
Cholesterol-lowering drugs may fight infectious disease
22.08.2017 | Duke University
Once invincible superbug squashed by 'superteam' of antibiotics
22.08.2017 | University at Buffalo
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
24.08.2017 | Life Sciences
24.08.2017 | Life Sciences
24.08.2017 | Medical Engineering