Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Forsyth team gains new insight on childhood dental disease

28.02.2011
New pathogen contributes to severe early childhood caries

Researchers at The Forsyth Institute have made a significant discovery about the nature of childhood dental disease. The scientific studies led by Anne Tanner, BDS, Ph.D., identified a new pathogen connected to severe early childhood caries (cavities).

This bacterium, Scardovia wiggsiae, was present in the mouths of children with severe early childhood caries when other known pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans were not detected. This research may offer the potential to intervene and halt the progression of disease.

Early childhood caries, ECC, is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood in the United States. Severe ECC can destroy primary teeth, cause painful abscesses and is the major reason for hospital visits for young children. This condition disproportionately affects disadvantaged socio-economic groups. This research, which will be published in the April issue of Journal of Clinical Microbiology, provides new insight on the microbiota of severe early childhood caries.

Dental caries is caused by an interaction between bacteria, host susceptibility and a carbohydrate diet that contains large amounts of sugar. Dr. Tanner published an updated evaluation of the diet associated with severe-ECC in collaboration with Dr. Carole Palmer at Tufts University in the Journal of Dental Research in 2010. The bacterial species Streptococcus mutans is widely recognized as the primary pathogen in early childhood caries. However, it is also present in people without disease and is not detected in all cases of childhood caries. This suggests that other species such as S. wiggsiae are also disease causing pathogens.

"In my work, I have seen the tremendous public health impact of severe early childhood caries," said. Dr. Anne Tanner, Senior Member of Staff, Department of Molecular Genetics, The Forsyth Institute.

"Understanding the causes of severe dental decay in young children is the first step in identifying an effective cure."

Summary of Study

Severe early childhood caries (ECC), while strongly associated with Streptococcus mutans using selective detection methods (culture, PCR), has also been associated with other bacteria using molecular cloning approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of severe-ECC using anaerobic culture. The microbial composition of dental plaque from 42 severe-ECC children was compared with that of caries-free children. Bacterial samples were cultured anaerobically on blood and acid (pH 5) agars. Isolates were purified, and partial sequences for the 16S rRNA gene were obtained from 5608 isolates. Sequence based analysis of the 16S rRNA isolate libraries from blood and acid agars of severe-ECC and caries-free children had >90% population coverage with greater diversity in the blood isolate library. Isolate sequences were compared with taxa sequences in the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) and 198 HOMD taxa were identified, including 45 previously uncultivated taxa, 29 extended HOMD taxa and 45 potential novel groups. The major species associated with severe-ECC included Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Veillonella parvula, Streptococcus cristatus and Actinomyces gerensceriae. S. wiggsiae was significantly associated with severe-ECC children in the presence and absence of S. mutans. Dr. Tanner and her team conclude that anaerobic culture detected as wide a diversity of species in ECC as observed using cloning approaches. Culture coupled with 16S rRNA identification identified over 74 isolates for human oral taxa without previously cultivated representatives. The major caries-associated species were S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, the latter of which is a candidate as a newly recognized caries pathogen.

This study was conducted with collaborators at the Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston University, and Tufts University School of Dental Medicine and with Dr. Floyd Dewhirst and resources of the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD) at Forsyth Institute. HOMD links several types of information on oral microbes to a consistent naming system. HOMD contains descriptions of the microbes, their metabolism, and their ability to cause disease along with information on their DNA and proteins, as well as to the scientific literature.

About Forsyth

The Forsyth Institute is the world's leading independent organization dedicated to scientific research and education in oral health and related biomedical sciences. Established in 1910, Forsyth's goal is to lead the discovery, communication and application of breakthroughs in oral health and disease prevention that will significantly improve the health and well-being of the nation and the world. For more information about Forsyth visit its website at www.forsyth.org.

Jennifer Kelly | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.forsyth.org

Further reports about: Dental Analytics Dental Medicine ECC HOMD Human vaccine Microbiome Streptococcus

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht How cancer metastasis happens: Researchers reveal a key mechanism
19.01.2018 | Weill Cornell Medicine

nachricht Researchers identify new way to unmask melanoma cells to the immune system
17.01.2018 | Duke University Medical Center

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Artificial agent designs quantum experiments

On the way to an intelligent laboratory, physicists from Innsbruck and Vienna present an artificial agent that autonomously designs quantum experiments. In initial experiments, the system has independently (re)discovered experimental techniques that are nowadays standard in modern quantum optical laboratories. This shows how machines could play a more creative role in research in the future.

We carry smartphones in our pockets, the streets are dotted with semi-autonomous cars, but in the research laboratory experiments are still being designed by...

Im Focus: Scientists decipher key principle behind reaction of metalloenzymes

So-called pre-distorted states accelerate photochemical reactions too

What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...

Im Focus: The first precise measurement of a single molecule's effective charge

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.

Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...

Im Focus: Paradigm shift in Paris: Encouraging an holistic view of laser machining

At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.

No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...

Im Focus: Room-temperature multiferroic thin films and their properties

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.

Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

10th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Münster, 10-11 April 2018

08.01.2018 | Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Thanks for the memory: NIST takes a deep look at memristors

22.01.2018 | Materials Sciences

Radioactivity from oil and gas wastewater persists in Pennsylvania stream sediments

22.01.2018 | Earth Sciences

Saarland University bioinformaticians compute gene sequences inherited from each parent

22.01.2018 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks Wissenschaft & Forschung
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>