Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New Findings Validate the Accuracy of Autism Diagnosis in Children with Down Syndrome

05.10.2011
New findings from a 16-year study confirm that the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), the gold-standard for the classification of mental health conditions, can be used to accurately identify autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children with Down syndrome, according to research from Kennedy Krieger Institute.

The DSM is used by a wide range of health professionals across clinical and research settings. Previously, the diagnosis of autism in children with Down syndrome has been questioned because of the presence of cognitive impairments in these individuals, despite estimates that 10 to 15 percent of children with Down syndrome are affected by both disorders.

Autism-like behaviors are often difficult to differentiate from repetitive behaviors, communication difficulties and other cognitive delays associated with intellectual disability. Because of these challenges, physicians often hesitate to diagnose ASD in children with Down syndrome, leaving them unable to receive important therapy and educational services.

“Based on our findings, I encourage parents of children with Down syndrome who display difficulty with social interaction to ask their providers about the presence of autism or other intellectual disabilities,” says Dr. Walter E. Kaufmann, senior study author and director of Kennedy Krieger’s Center for Genetic Disorders of Cognition and Behavior. “Our results will significantly help clinicians in categorizing co-morbidities and support them in developing more targeted educational and intervention services for children with Down syndrome.”

Published in the Journal of Intellectual Disability Research [Epub ahead of print], the study confirmed the unbiased validity of the DSM for identifying autism in children with Down syndrome by comparing diagnoses based on its criteria with scores from a separate tool, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist – Community (ABC-C).

The ABC-C is one the most commonly used tools for evaluating behavioral problems in individuals with intellectual disabilities and has no relation to the DSM. The 58-item, parent-completed, clinician-interpreted checklist assesses the severity of non-productive behaviors.

“The behavioral diagnosis of autism will probably always be more complicated than a simple blood test,” says Dr. Kaufmann. “However, with this study, we’re able to use objective analytical methods to support the accurate diagnosis of autism in children with Down syndrome so that they can receive proper treatment and care.”

Researchers used the ABC-C scores to confirm or deny initial DSM-based autism diagnoses in 293 patients from the Institute’s Down Syndrome Clinic. The researchers were able to accurately distinguish three diagnostic groups:

Down syndrome (DS): children with DS, but no significant behavioral problems that would warrant the diagnosis of a coexisting mental health condition
DS + ASD: children with DS and autism spectrum disorders
DS + Disruptive behavior disorder (DBD): children with DS and DBD, characterized by temper tantrums, physical aggression, excessive argumentativeness, stealing and other forms of defiance or resistance to authority

“The most telling result of our study is that we were not only able to clearly identify patients with Down syndrome and ASD, but also distinguish two other behavioral categories – those without major behavioral problems and those with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), a widely recognized group among individuals with Down syndrome,” says Dr. George Capone, study author and Director of the Down Syndrome Clinic at Kennedy Krieger.

Capone initiated the study in 1992 when few biomedical researchers were interested in studying the connection between the two disorders. Remarkably, the parents of patients in Kennedy Krieger’s Down Syndrome Clinic joined Capone in his effort by funding the study with their individual gifts. Capone recalls, “Parents would travel from around the country and the world to be seen here because few other institutions were committed to understanding this dual-diagnosis. Once we gave these families validation that their child was indeed different and required different support strategies than a typical child with Down syndrome, they wanted to help other families access this knowledge.”

The findings suggest that a strategy similar to what researchers employed in this study could be used for confirming the diagnosis of ASD in other genetic disorders. Kaufmann says that the research also demonstrates that the ABC-C can be used as a supportive resource for making the diagnosis of ASD and other behavioral problems in Down syndrome. His hope is that this study provides the evidence clinicians need to confidently use the DSM to diagnose ASD in Down syndrome, ensuring better outcomes for affected children and families.

Researchers also note an unexpected finding: Down syndrome patients with severe autism behaviors were much more likely to have experienced a later onset of ASD. More studies are needed to determine the cause of this phenomenon, which may provide researchers a glimpse into the genetic associations behind autism and Down syndrome. Support for this study was provided by affected families through individual gifts and, in part, by Autism Speaks.

About the Kennedy Krieger Institute:
Internationally recognized for improving the lives of children and adolescents with disorders and injuries of the brain and spinal cord, the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, MD serves more than 16,000 individuals each year through inpatient and outpatient clinics, home and community services and school-based programs. Kennedy Krieger provides a wide range of services for children with developmental concerns mild to severe, and is home to a team of investigators who are contributing to the understanding of how disorders develop while pioneering new interventions and earlier diagnosis. For more information on Kennedy Krieger Institute, visit www.kennedykrieger.org.
Media Contact:
Megan Lustig
(202) 955-6222
mlustig@spectrumscience.com

Megan Lustig | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.kennedykrieger.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Biofilm discovery suggests new way to prevent dangerous infections
23.05.2017 | University of Texas at Austin

nachricht Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat -- a key to better bone health
19.05.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

Im Focus: Bacteria harness the lotus effect to protect themselves

Biofilms: Researchers find the causes of water-repelling properties

Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

Innovation 4.0: Shaping a humane fourth industrial revolution

17.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientists propose synestia, a new type of planetary object

23.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Zap! Graphene is bad news for bacteria

23.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Medical gamma-ray camera is now palm-sized

23.05.2017 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>