The genetic mutation involved would date back to 12th century Vikings
Physicians and researchers at CHU Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, CHU de Québec, Université Laval, and Hubrecht Institute have discovered a rare disease affecting both heart rate and intestinal movements. The disease, which has been named "Chronic Atrial Intestinal Dysrhythmia syndrome" (CAID), is a serious condition caused by a rare genetic mutation. This finding demonstrates that heart and guts rhythmic contractions are closely linked by a single gene in the human body, as shown in a study published on October 5, 2014 in Nature Genetics.
The research teams in Canada have also developed a diagnostic test for the CAID syndrome. "This test will identify with certainty the syndrome, which is characterized by the combined presence of various cardiac and intestinal symptoms," said Dr. Gregor Andelfinger, a pediatric cardiologist and researcher at CHU Sainte-Justine "The symptoms are severe, and treatments are very aggressive and invasive, added Dr. Philippe Chetaille, a pediatric cardiologist and researcher at the university hospital CHU de Québec." At cardiac level, patients suffer primarily from a slow heart rate, a condition which will require the implantation of a pacemaker for half of them, often as early as in their childhood. At digestive level, a chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction will often force patients to feed exclusively intravenously. Furthermore, many of them will also have to undergo bowel surgery.
Discovery of the CAID Syndrome
By analysing the DNA of patients of French-Canadian origin and a patient of Scandinavian origin showing both the cardiac and the gastrointestinal condition, the researchers were able to identify a mutation in the gene SGOL1 that is common to all of patients showing both profiles. "To lift any doubts concerning the role of the identified mutation, we also made sure it was ruled out in people showing only one of the profiles," said Dr. Andelfinger. Similarly, Dr. Jeroen Bakkers, at Hubrecht Institute, in The Netherlands, who also collaborated to the project, studied zebrafish with the same gene mutation "The mutated fish showed the same cardiac symptoms as humans, which confirms the causal role played by SGOL1", he continued.
A Transatlantic Founder effect The research team traced back the genealogy of eight patients of French-Canadian origin using the Quebec population BALSAC historical data base. They were able to identify a common ancestry dating back to the 17th century, more precisely a founder couple married in France in 1620. Molecular genetic tests also proved that the identified French-Canadian and the Swedish mutations share the same origin, suggesting the existence of a founder effect and the major role played by migration of populations. According to the investigators' calculations, the genetic legacy would date back to the 12th century, then following the migration route of the Vikings from Scandinavia to Normandy, then that of the settlers who migrated to New France in the 17th century.
An Unsuspected Role for SGOL1
The researchers believe that the mutation of SGOL1 acts mechanistically to reduce the protection of specific nerve and muscle cells in the gut and the heart, causing them to age prematurely due to an accelerated replication cycle. Their findings suggest an unsuspected role for SGOL1 in the heart's ability to maintain its rhythm throughout life. The specific role played by the gene and the impact of its mutation will take center stage in future investigations of the research group. Along with physicians and patients, the group hopes their understanding of the disease will help them identify new avenues for treatments specifically targeting the underlying genetic and molecular causes.
About the Study
The study "Mutations in a novel because SGOL1 cohesinopathy affecting heart and gut rhythm" was published in Nature Genetics on October 5, 2014. Funding for this project provided by the FORGE Canada Consortium, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Ontario Genomics Institute, Genome Quebec, Genome British Columbia, and André Foundation Nussia Aisenstadt, GO Foundation, Leducq Foundation and Association des pseudo-obstructions intestinales chroniques, France.
About the Researchers
Dr. Gregor Andelfinger, MD is a pediatric cardiologist at CHU Sainte-Justine, a researcher at Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Center in the Fetomaternal and Neonatal Pathologies axis, and Associate Research Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at Université de Montréal. He also holds a Research Chair in cardiovascular genetics.
Dr. Philippe Chetaille, MD, MSc, is a pediatric cardiologist at CHU de Québec, an Associate Researcher at CHU de Québec Research Centre and a Full Associate Professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the Université Laval
Dr. Jeroen Bakkers, PhD, is a senior principle investigator of the Cardiac Development and Genetics group at the Hubrecht Institute in Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Interviews and Filming Opportunities
Researchers, physicians, patients and parents are available for interviews on request.
William Raillant-Clark | Eurek Alert!
New study points the way to therapy for rare cancer that targets the young
22.11.2017 | Rockefeller University
Penn study identifies new malaria parasites in wild bonobos
21.11.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
22.11.2017 | Business and Finance
22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
22.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy