Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Cardiac bypass surgery superior to non-surgical procedure for adults with diabetes and heart disease

05.11.2012
Adults with diabetes and multi-vessel coronary heart disease who underwent cardiac bypass surgery had better overall heart-related outcomes than those who underwent an artery-opening procedure to improve blood flow to the heart muscle, according to the results from an international study. The research was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Institutes of Health.

The study compared the effectiveness of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with a non-surgical procedure known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) that included insertion of drug-eluting stents. After five years, the CABG group had fewer adverse events and better survival rates than the PCI group.

Principal investigator Valentin Fuster, M.D., Ph.D., of Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, will present the study findings on Sunday, Nov. 4, at 7:58 p.m. ET at the American Heart Association's annual meeting in Los Angeles. The findings will appear concurrently online in The New England Journal of Medicine. A companion paper on cost effectiveness will appear online in Circulation.

"These study results confirm that bypass surgery is a better overall treatment option for individuals with diabetes and multi-vessel coronary disease and may assist physicians' efforts to prevent cardiovascular events such as heart attacks and deaths in this high-risk group," explained Gary H. Gibbons, M.D., director of the NHLBI.
In coronary heart disease, plaque builds up inside coronary arteries. This often leads to blocked or reduced blood flow to the heart muscle and can result in chest pain, heart attack, heart failure, and/or erratic heartbeats (arrhythmia). In 2010, nearly 380,000 Americans died from coronary heart disease. Approximately 25 percent to 30 percent of patients needing CABG or PCI have diabetes and multi-vessel coronary heart disease.

In the United States, more than one million procedures (CABG and PCI) are performed each year to restore circulation to patients with blocked arteries.

In CABG, surgeons try to improve blood flow to the heart muscle by using a healthy artery or vein from another part of the body to bypass a blocked coronary artery.

PCI is a less invasive procedure in which blocked arteries are opened from the inside with a balloon. A stent, or small mesh tube, is then usually inserted to prop the opened arteries so that blood continues to flow into the heart muscle. The type of stent used in the study, called drug-eluting, is coated with medicine that is slowly and continuously released to prevent an opened artery from becoming blocked again.

The study, called Future Revascularization Evaluation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Optimal Management of Multivessel Disease (FREEDOM), involved 140 international centers and a total of 1,900 adults enrolled from 2005 to 2010. The participants had diabetes and coronary heart disease that involved narrowing of multiple blood vessels, but not the left main coronary artery, which usually requires immediate treatment with CABG.

At each clinical site, a team of specialists in neurology, heart disease, diabetes, and general medicine screened potential participants to ensure that they were eligible for both CABG and PCI. Those who were selected for the trial were randomly assigned to receive one of the interventions. As recommended by international guidelines for patients who receive drug-eluting stents, the PCI group also received anti-clotting therapies. A drug called abciximab was administered intravenously during the procedure, and clopidogrel was given orally for at least 12 months after the procedure, accompanied by aspirin for those who could tolerate it. Study participants were followed for at least two years.

During the trial, participants received standard medical care for all major cardiovascular risk factors such as high LDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar. Participants also were counseled about lifestyle choices such as smoking cessation, diet, and regular exercise.

After five years, the CABG group had a lower combined rate of strokes, heart attacks, and deaths (18.7 percent) than the PCI group (26.6 percent). Strokes, which are a well-known risk of bypass surgery, occurred slightly more often in the CABG group (5.2 percent) than in the PCI group (2.4 percent). However, more people died from any cause in the PCI group (16.3 percent) than in the CABG group (10.9 percent). The survival advantage of CABG over PCI was consistent regardless of race, gender, number of blocked vessels, or disease severity.

"The advantages of CABG over PCI were striking in this trial and could change treatment recommendations for thousands of individuals with diabetes and heart disease," said Fuster.

FREEDOM was supported by NIH grants HL071988 and HL092989. Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, and Boston Scientific provided stents. Eli Lilly provided an unrestricted research grant for abciximab, and Sanofi-Aventis and Bristol Myers Squibb donated clopidogrel.

FREEDOM involved hundreds of investigators from more than 16 countries, with a clinical coordinating center at Mount Sinai School of Medicine and a data coordinating center at New England Research Institutes in Watertown, Mass.

For additional information or to arrange an interview with Yves Rosenberg, M.D., chief of the Atherothrombosis and Coronary Artery Disease Branch at the NHLBI, please contact the NHLBI Office of Communications at 301-496-4236 or nhlbi_news@nhlbi.nih.gov. To arrange an interview with Fuster, please contact Christie Corbett at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine at 212-241-9200 or christie.corbett@mountsinai.org.

NHLBI Communications Office | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht One gene closer to regenerative therapy for muscular disorders
01.06.2017 | Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center

nachricht The gut microbiota plays a key role in treatment with classic diabetes medication
01.06.2017 | University of Gothenburg

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>