However, free radicals should by no means be considered as being exclusively destructive. On the contrary, processes such as energy metabolism (in the respiratory chain) and the defence of neutrophilic granulocytes against pathogens and foreign bodies depend on the formation of free radicals.
For this reason alone, it has to be expected that a supply of antioxidants may also cause considerable undesired effects to the skin and the organism. In addition, under certain conditions, some anti-oxidants can also exhibit a pro-oxidant mechanism of action, e.g. ß-carotene or vitamin C, with the question "When is an antioxidant not an antioxidant?"A Letter to the Editor, just published on September 3rd, 2008, in the interdisciplinary medical e-Journal "GMS German Medical Science" of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) , explicitly describes the ambivalence of antioxidants with their two sides: a desired and an undesired side.
In a large-scale, multicenter, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial on prevention, 864 persons, whose colon polyps had been removed, received 25 mg of ß-carotene or placebo combined with 1000 mg vitamin C + 400 mg vitamin E or placebo on a daily basis. After four years, the following observations could be made concerning supplementation of ß-carotene and the development of colon polyps: pronounced reduction of the risk for non-smokers and those abstaining from alcohol; slightly increased risk for smokers or alcohol consumers; a doubling of the risk for people who smoke cigarettes and consume more than one alcoholic beverage per day.
Further clinical studies showed that ß-carotene supplementation caused no change in the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. After a ß-carotene supplemented diet even a significant exacerbation of the UV-carcinogenesis occurred. A photoprotective effect was not achieved.The artificial supply of antioxidants into the human skin poses further questions. In everyday life, on holidays or at work, large amounts of optical radiation can penetrate into the skin and modify the effects of antioxidants. It has been known for a long time that large quantities of free radicals can be generated in human skin as a result of UV irradiation.
So far, no adequate randomised and placebo-controlled multicenter studies or even meta-analyses have emerged which can shed light on the question of whether antioxidants applied in or on the skin can alter phenomena such as ageing or carcinogenesis of the skin in an unfavourable or favourable sense. We still do not know how UV, visible light and infrared or portions or combinations of these may act on modified concentrations of various antioxidants and on their components in the skin. This is a considerable challenge to the field of dermatological research. Or, to quote H. S. Black: "At present, beta-carotene use as a dietary supplement for photoprotection should be approached cautiously".Publication:
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Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
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