However, free radicals should by no means be considered as being exclusively destructive. On the contrary, processes such as energy metabolism (in the respiratory chain) and the defence of neutrophilic granulocytes against pathogens and foreign bodies depend on the formation of free radicals.
For this reason alone, it has to be expected that a supply of antioxidants may also cause considerable undesired effects to the skin and the organism. In addition, under certain conditions, some anti-oxidants can also exhibit a pro-oxidant mechanism of action, e.g. ß-carotene or vitamin C, with the question "When is an antioxidant not an antioxidant?"A Letter to the Editor, just published on September 3rd, 2008, in the interdisciplinary medical e-Journal "GMS German Medical Science" of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) , explicitly describes the ambivalence of antioxidants with their two sides: a desired and an undesired side.
In a large-scale, multicenter, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial on prevention, 864 persons, whose colon polyps had been removed, received 25 mg of ß-carotene or placebo combined with 1000 mg vitamin C + 400 mg vitamin E or placebo on a daily basis. After four years, the following observations could be made concerning supplementation of ß-carotene and the development of colon polyps: pronounced reduction of the risk for non-smokers and those abstaining from alcohol; slightly increased risk for smokers or alcohol consumers; a doubling of the risk for people who smoke cigarettes and consume more than one alcoholic beverage per day.
Further clinical studies showed that ß-carotene supplementation caused no change in the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. After a ß-carotene supplemented diet even a significant exacerbation of the UV-carcinogenesis occurred. A photoprotective effect was not achieved.The artificial supply of antioxidants into the human skin poses further questions. In everyday life, on holidays or at work, large amounts of optical radiation can penetrate into the skin and modify the effects of antioxidants. It has been known for a long time that large quantities of free radicals can be generated in human skin as a result of UV irradiation.
So far, no adequate randomised and placebo-controlled multicenter studies or even meta-analyses have emerged which can shed light on the question of whether antioxidants applied in or on the skin can alter phenomena such as ageing or carcinogenesis of the skin in an unfavourable or favourable sense. We still do not know how UV, visible light and infrared or portions or combinations of these may act on modified concentrations of various antioxidants and on their components in the skin. This is a considerable challenge to the field of dermatological research. Or, to quote H. S. Black: "At present, beta-carotene use as a dietary supplement for photoprotection should be approached cautiously".Publication:
Routing gene therapy directly into the brain
07.12.2017 | Boston Children's Hospital
New Hope for Cancer Therapies: Targeted Monitoring may help Improve Tumor Treatment
01.12.2017 | Berliner Institut für Gesundheitsforschung / Berlin Institute of Health (BIH)
Tiny pores at a cell's entryway act as miniature bouncers, letting in some electrically charged atoms--ions--but blocking others. Operating as exquisitely sensitive filters, these "ion channels" play a critical role in biological functions such as muscle contraction and the firing of brain cells.
To rapidly transport the right ions through the cell membrane, the tiny channels rely on a complex interplay between the ions and surrounding molecules,...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecule’s storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters.
Over the past few years, the building blocks of storage media have gotten ever smaller. But further miniaturization of the current technology is hindered by...
With innovative experiments, researchers at the Helmholtz-Zentrums Geesthacht and the Technical University Hamburg unravel why tiny metallic structures are extremely strong
Light-weight and simultaneously strong – porous metallic nanomaterials promise interesting applications as, for instance, for future aeroplanes with enhanced...
An interdisciplinary group of researchers interfaced individual bacteria with a computer to build a hybrid bio-digital circuit - Study published in Nature Communications
Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have managed to control the behavior of individual bacteria by connecting them to a...
Physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (run jointly by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics) have developed an attosecond electron microscope that allows them to visualize the dispersion of light in time and space, and observe the motions of electrons in atoms.
The most basic of all physical interactions in nature is that between light and matter. This interaction takes place in attosecond times (i.e. billionths of a...
11.12.2017 | Event News
08.12.2017 | Event News
07.12.2017 | Event News
11.12.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
11.12.2017 | Earth Sciences
11.12.2017 | Information Technology