According to an article published in the August 26, 2008, issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC), air pollution has both short- and long-term toxic effects that injure the heart and blood vessels, increase rates of hospitalization for cardiac illness, and can even cause death.
"We used to think air pollution was a problem that primarily affects the lungs. We now know it is also bad for the heart," said Robert A. Kloner, M.D., Ph.D., director of research at the Heart Institute of the Good Samaritan Hospital, and a professor of medicine at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, both in Los Angeles.
When pollutants are inhaled, they trigger an increase in "reactive oxygen species"—superoxiding molecules that damage cells, cause inflammation in the lungs, and spark the cascade of harmful effects in the heart and cardiovascular system. Recent research suggests that ultrafine air pollutants, such as those coming from car exhaust, may pass into the blood stream and damage the heart and blood vessels directly. Hearts directly exposed to ultrafine air pollutants show an immediate decrease in both coronary blood flow and the heart's pumping function, as well as a tendency to develop arrhythmias, according to studies conducted at the Heart Institute.
"There doesn't have to be an environmental catastrophe for air pollution to cause injury," said Boris Z. Simkhovich, M.D., Ph.D, a senior research associate at the Heart Institute of the Good Samaritan Hospital, and an assistant professor of research medicine at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California. "We're talking about very modest increases. Air pollution can be dangerous at levels that are within the accepted air quality standards."
Studies in both humans and animals have shown that exposure to air pollution can affect heart rate, blood pressure, blood vessel function, blood clotting, and heart rate variability (a factor in developing heart rhythm disturbances), and speed the progression of atherosclerosis.
Researchers who study large populations of people over time have found that increased levels of air pollution are linked to emergency hospital admissions for heart attack, chest pain, and congestive heart failure and even to death from heart disease, arrhythmias, heart failure and cardiac arrest.
The elderly and patients who have already been diagnosed with heart disease or diabetes (which damages the blood vessels) are particularly vulnerable to the cardiovascular effects of air pollution.
"Patients with cardiovascular disease shouldn't exercise outside on days with increased air pollution levels. On very polluted days, they should consider staying inside, and during the winter, they should limit exposure to fireplace smoke," Dr. Kloner said. "Of course, the real solution is to reduce air pollution."
Alfred Bove, M.D., Ph.D., agreed. "The review by Dr. Simkhovich and his fellow authors make it quite clear that air pollution is linked to cardiovascular disease," said Dr. Bove, ACC's president-elect and cardiology section chief at Temple University School of Medicine in Philadelphia. "They suggest that this is another compelling reason to campaign for improved air quality, while at the same time studying therapies to minimize the risk of exposures."
Amanda Jekowsky | EurekAlert!
Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution
09.12.2016 | Veterans Affairs Research Communications
Oxygen can wake up dormant bacteria for antibiotic attacks
08.12.2016 | Penn State
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
09.12.2016 | Life Sciences
09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine