Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New MRI technique shows emphysema in asymptomatic smokers

31.05.2006

A new imaging method has revealed early signs of emphysema in smokers with no external symptoms of the disease, according to a study published in the June issue of Radiology. The study, supported by the National Institutes of Health, details a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that appears to be much more sensitive to lung changes than even the current modality of choice, computed tomography (CT).

"With this technology, we have shown that it is possible to measure the severity of emphysema and its progression through time without the radiation exposure of lung CT tests," said Sean B. Fain, Ph.D., lead author and assistant professor of medical physics and radiology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Emphysema is a chronic, progressive lung disease, which permanently damages the air sacs in the lungs. As the size of the air sacs (or "airspaces") increase, cavities form in the lung tissue, hindering oxygen delivery. According to the American Lung Association, over 3 million people in the United States have been diagnosed with emphysema, and millions more are in the early stages of the disease before signs and symptoms appear. Smoking cigarettes triples the risk of developing the disease.

The researchers had 19 volunteers inhale a special kind of "hyperpolarized" helium before they performed two MRI tests of the lungs. Eleven of the volunteers were smokers with no symptoms of emphysema, and the remaining eight were nonsmokers. The first image the researchers acquired showed obstructed areas of the lungs, where the air was unable to pass. The second image they obtained is called an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, which shows the size of the airspaces in the lungs. Because emphysema increases airspace size, the ADC map shows the location and severity of the disease.

"The ADC maps are very sensitive to changes in the lung structure," Dr. Fain said. "With this tool, it was shown that even smokers that appear healthy have enlarged lung airspaces that suggest emphysema is already developing."

With increasing smoking history, the ADC maps showed progressive breakdown of the lung structure in all regions of the lungs. All smokers with a history greater than 18 pack-years (equivalent to one pack of cigarettes per day for 18 years) showed significant abnormalities compared to nonsmokers.

CT was performed after MRI, to allow comparison between the two modalities. Even though CT is the more established modality in the investigation of lung disease, it failed to show the same defects detected with MRI. Moreover, with the combination of MRI and hyperpolarized helium, the researchers were able to measure lung structures with 2½ times more precision than with CT, and 10 times more precision than with conventional MRI methods.

Age is a significant factor in the development of emphysema-like changes. The researchers found that, in general, the airspaces in the lungs enlarge with age. However, smoking compounds the problem. Dr. Fain and colleagues showed in a related study that these changes occur at a much slower rate in nonsmokers than in active smokers.

"On average, active smoking accelerates emphysema-like changes at about twice the normal rate found with aging," Dr. Fain explained.

In addition to early disease detection, hyperpolarized MRI can also be used to plan surgical therapies and to monitor patient response to drug therapies without the risks of exposure to CT-related radiation.

Dr. Fain believes that this new method of using polarized gases to study lung diseases will provide a clearer picture of the underlying mechanisms of poorly understood conditions like asthma and chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, leading to better treatments.

Heather Babiar | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.rsna.org

More articles from Medical Engineering:

nachricht Penn first in world to treat patient with new radiation technology
22.09.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

nachricht Skin patch dissolves 'love handles' in mice
18.09.2017 | Columbia University Medical Center

All articles from Medical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

Im Focus: Quantum Sensors Decipher Magnetic Ordering in a New Semiconducting Material

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.

Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA'S OSIRIS-REx spacecraft slingshots past Earth

25.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

MRI contrast agent locates and distinguishes aggressive from slow-growing breast cancer

25.09.2017 | Health and Medicine

Rainbow colors reveal cell history: Uncovering β-cell heterogeneity

22.09.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>