Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

PET Scans Predict Effectiveness of Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in HIV Patients

25.05.2011
With the deficiencies in knowledge of tuberculosis—as well as in the practices, programs and strategies used to combat the disease and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)—the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis poses a major problem for the health care community.

Research in the June issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, however, shows that the use of 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) scans can help to determine earlier if treatment for tuberculosis is working or if the disease is MDR.

Tuberculosis and HIV have been linked since the AIDS epidemic began. Approximately 33.2 million people across the world are living with HIV, and an estimated one-third of them are co-infected with tuberculosis. In 2008, the number of MDR tuberculosis cases reached between 390,000-510,000, or 3.6 percent of all incident tuberculosis cases. MDR tuberculosis is very difficult to treat and is often fatal.

“Early detection of drug resistance of tuberculosis allows the initiation of an appropriate treatment, which may significantly affect patient survival. Currently, more than two-thirds of patients with MDR tuberculosis die,” said Mike Sathekge, MD, PhD, lead author of the study “Use of 18F-FDG PET to Predict Response to First-Line Tuberculostatics in HIV-Associated Tuberculosis.”

In the prospective pilot study, 24 patients with tuberculosis underwent 18F-FDG PET scans prior to receiving tuberculosis treatment—the standard triad: isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. After four months of treatment, the patients received another 18F-FDG scan to measure averaged maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)—which measures glucose metabolic activity—derived from early and delayed imaging, percentage change in SUVmax and number of involved lymph node basins.

The researchers found that SUVmax of involved lymph nodes, number of involved lymph node basins and C-reactive protein levels assessed by the PET scan were significantly higher in nonresponders than responders. It was determined that a cutoff of five or more lymph node basins allowed for a separation of treatment responders and nonresponders.

According to Sathekge, “18F-FDG PET has the potential to become a valuable clinical adjunct to the already available genotypic and phenotypic tests in patients for whom such tests are not feasible, are inconclusive or are too lengthy to be of clinical relevance.”

Authors of the article “Use of 18F-FDG PET to Predict Response to First-Line Tuberculostatics in HIV-Associated Tuberculosis” include: Mike Sathekge, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; Alex Maes, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Groeninge, Kortrijk, Belgium and Department of Morphology and Medical Imaging, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Mpho Kgomo, Department of Internal Medicine, Louis Pasture Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa; Anton Stoltz, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Pretoria, South Africa; and Christophe Van de Wiele, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.

To schedule an interview with the researchers, please contact Susan Martonik at (703) 652-6773 or smartonik@snm.org.Current and past issues of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine can be found online at http://jnm.snmjournals.org.

About SNM—Advancing Molecular Imaging and Therapy
SNM is an international scientific and medical organization dedicated to raising public awareness about what molecular imaging is and how it can help provide patients with the best health care possible. SNM members specialize in molecular imaging, a vital element of today’s medical practice that adds an additional dimension to diagnosis, changing the way common and devastating diseases are understood and treated.

SNM’s more than 17,000 members set the standard for molecular imaging and nuclear medicine practice by creating guidelines, sharing information through journals and meetings and leading advocacy on key issues that affect molecular imaging and therapy research and practice. For more information, visit http://www.snm.org.

Susan Martonik | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.snm.org

More articles from Medical Engineering:

nachricht Noninvasive eye scan could detect key signs of Alzheimer's years before patients show symptoms
18.08.2017 | Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

nachricht Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) overcomes swallowing disorders and hypersalivation – a case report
10.08.2017 | Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften e.V.

All articles from Medical Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>