A new study published in Cancer Research shows SIRT6—a protein known to inhibit the growth of liver and colon cancers—can promote the development of skin cancers by turning on an enzyme that increases inflammation, proliferation and survival of sun-damaged skin cells.
Previously considered protective, SIRT6 is part of a family of seven proteins called sirtuins that help regulate genomic stability and prevent some of the genetic flaws associated with aging. SIRT6 helps repair DNA damage, which can lead to cancer. This study, in the journal's October 15 issue, reveals its activity can vary from one tissue type to another.
"Although SIRT6 suppressed tumor growth in some cell types, we discovered that it encouraged cancer development in others, particularly in skin cells," said study author Yu-Ying He, PhD, assistant professor of medicine at the University of Chicago.
"We found more SIRT6 protein in sun-damaged squamous cell carcinoma cells than in healthy, sun-protected human skin," she said. "When we deleted SIRT6 from skin cells in mice, tumor development decreased."
To understand how SIRT6 contributed to the onset of skin cancer the researchers looked at its effects on COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation. COX-2 also promotes cell proliferation and survival, however, two hallmarks of cancer cells. When the researchers increased expression of SIRT6, COX-2 became more abundant. When they inhibited SIRT6 expression, COX-2 levels decreased.
They also found that exposure to ultraviolet-B light, a cancer-causing component of sunshine, could trigger increased expression of SIRT6 in skin cells. This led to the production of COX-2, which contributed to the development of skin cancers.
"Our findings underscore a critical role for SIRT6 in the skin damage cause by ultraviolet light," He said, "This adds to our understanding of the mechanisms of skin carcinogenesis. It suggests that SIRT6 could provide a useful target for cancer prevention. We are searching for safe and effective ways to inhibit it."
The National Institutes of Health, The American Cancer Society and the University of Chicago Cancer Research Center supported the study. Additional authors were Mei Ming, Weinhong Han, Baozhong Zhao and Mahesh Gupta from the University of Chicago; Nagalongam Sundaresan from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India; and Chu-Xia Deng, from the National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH).
John Easton | Eurek Alert!
Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth
09.12.2016 | Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Plant-based substance boosts eyelash growth
09.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Polymerforschung IAP
Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.
Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
09.12.2016 | Life Sciences
09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation
09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine