Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Beyond the DNA: Chemical signatures reveal genetic switches in the genome

07.02.2007
Study uses 'histone code' for functional genome annotation

Investigators from the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research (LICR) and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine have made a breakthrough in identifying functional elements in the human genome, according to a report published online today in Nature Genetics.

While the DNA sequence can identify genes (the 'what') within the genome, it cannot answer the more fundamental questions of 'how,' 'when' and 'where' gene products are expressed. However, the LICR team and collaborators have developed a novel method to identify and predict the 'promoter' and 'enhancer' regions that switch on transcription, the first step in gene expression. This study is an important step towards large-scale functional annotation of 'enhancers,' which establish the rate at which gene expression occurs and determine the tissues in which genes are expressed.

"The human genome is packaged within each cell by chromatin, a structure composed of DNA wrapped around proteins called histones," explains lead author Nathaniel Heintzman, from LICR and the UCSD Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program. "We used genome-scale approaches to analyze the chromatin architecture in human cells and discovered distinct signatures of modified histones that correspond to known promoters and enhancers. These findings enabled us to generate computational algorithms that identified hundreds of novel genomic regions with regulatory potential." Moreover, says Heintzman, this 'histone code' was able to accurately distinguish between promoters, from which gene transcription is directly initiated, and enhancer regions - some of which are very distant from the target gene - to which transcription-activating cofactors bind.

... more about:
»DNA »Histone »identify

According to LICR's Dr. Bing Ren, the study's senior author and assistant professor at UCSD's Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, the method is widely applicable and its unbiased approach is likely to yield new information on gene expression and how it is altered in disease. "The beauty of this approach is that it utilizes a chemical signature present on histones but not DNA. Existing methods to predict enhancers rely on the DNA sequence alone, but these are inadequate because we have an incomplete understanding of the sequence features that identify enhancers. The elucidation of a common histone modification signature will enable scientists to quickly identify enhancers and promoters for a gene, which will lead in turn to rapid identification of factors that control its expression." This method might also be used to identify the disruptions in gene networks that occur during cancer progression, says Dr. Ren, which might lead to novel strategies for cancer diagnosis.

Sarah L. White, Ph.D. | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.licr.org

Further reports about: DNA Histone identify

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>