Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Pick your COX partners

09.06.2006
COX enzymes work together in ways that suggest new biological roles, drug targets

Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Queen's University, Ontario, Canada report in the online edition of Nature Medicine this week that the COX enzymes – well-known for their contrasting role in cardiovascular biology – interact physically to form a previously unrecognized biochemical partnership and function in the development of blood vessels in a mouse model. Collaborators Garret FitzGerald, MD, Director of Penn's Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, and Colin Funk from Queen's University, say that the findings suggest new biological, developmental, and therapeutic roles for COX enzymes and prompt a re-evaluation of basic assumptions about the role of COX enzymes in disease.

COX-2 is the target of the now familiar COX inhibitors Vioxx and Celebrex. COX-1, the less celebrated sister, is the target of low-dose aspirin and older drugs, such as Advil and Naprosyn, which inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2 to prevent heart disease.

Researchers have known for some time that COX-1 and COX-2 pair up to function in the body. Even though they are interlocked, only one of them is active at a time in processing their substrate, arachidonic acid – from which prostaglandins, the fatty mediators of pain, inflammation, and heart attacks – are formed. The molecular structures of COX-1 and COX-2 are remarkably similar, but a subtle variation in their structure permits the construction of drugs that are selective in their inhibition for COX -2.

For this study the researchers developed a novel genetic mouse model that mimics the physiology of COX-2 inhibition. The investigators demonstrated that the COX-1:COX-2 partnership, or heterodimer, appears to play a critical role in the transformation that occurs in the blood vessels of newly born mice, shortly after birth, namely the closing of the ductus arterious. This necessary developmental step permits newborns to function independently from their mother.

"These observations prompt us to explore new roles for the COX enzymes in biology," says FitzGerald. "Perhaps their embrace will extend to other enzymes, such as the lipoxygenases and the nitric oxide synthases, in ways that prompt us to re-evaluate basic assumptions about the role of COX enzymes in physiology and disease."

"Perhaps this combination of COX enzymes will represent a new drug target," speculates Funk. "Blocking the COX dimer may alter the pattern of usefulness and/or safety that we associate with existing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs." Funk, who has collaborated with FitzGerald at Penn over the last decade on this line of research, is now the Canada Research Chair of Physiology at Queen's University, Ontario.

Karen Kreeger | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uphs.upenn.edu/news/

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Study shines light on brain cells that coordinate movement
26.06.2017 | University of Washington Health Sciences/UW Medicine

nachricht New insight into a central biological dogma on ion transport
26.06.2017 | Aarhus University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Study shines light on brain cells that coordinate movement

26.06.2017 | Life Sciences

Smooth propagation of spin waves using gold

26.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Switchable DNA mini-machines store information

26.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>