Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New finding may aid adult stem cell collection

27.07.2005


CINCINNATI-Cincinnati scientists have discovered how blood-regenerating stem cells move from bone marrow into the blood stream.



The finding has led to the development of a new chemical compound that can accelerate this process (called stem cell mobilization) in mice--which could eventually lead to more efficient stem cell harvesting for human use.

The researchers, from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati (UC), studied the migration of mouse stem cells to better understand how adult cells move into the bone marrow during stem cell transplants--or can be directed into the blood stream, where they can be more easily harvested for use in transplant procedures.


The team, led by Jose Cancelas, MD, PhD, and David Williams, MD, found that a group of proteins known as the RAC GTPase family plays a significant role in regulating the location and movement of stem cells in bone marrow.

Dr. Cancelas, lead author of the report, is director of research at UC’s Hoxworth Blood Center. Dr. Williams, the senior author, heads experimental hematology at Cincinnati Children’s.

The researchers discovered that by inhibiting RAC GTPase activity in mice, they were able to "instruct" stem cells to move from their home in the bone marrow and into the blood stream, where they can easily be collected. They achieved this using a drug, developed by Cincinnati Children’s faculty member Yi Zheng, PhD, known as NSC23766.

Their findings are reported in the Aug. 6 edition of the scientific journal Nature Medicine.

Scientists have long known that bone marrow stem cells regenerate blood cells. Recent research has also suggested that these cells may help repair damage in other organs, such as the heart and brain.

Injected during transplants procedures, stem cells migrate to a specific location in the bone marrow, where they reestablish the mechanism of blood formation.

"Our findings demonstrate that RAC GTPase proteins are essential for injected stem cells to migrate into the correct location in the bone marrow," said Dr. Williams.

Researching the location of and the factors involved in stem cell regeneration is important to the development of new therapeutic tools in stem cell therapy, said Dr. Cancelas, lead author of the report.

"We wanted to know why stem cells are located in specific pockets of the bone marrow," he said, "and how can they be mobilized to move into the blood stream for easier collection."

Adult stem cell transplantation, or bone marrow transplantation, is used during the treatment of cancer and genetic blood diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, to restore blood cell formation in bone marrow that has been damaged by high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy. It has also shown promise in animal studies for possible treatment of organ damage, such as that seen in heart disease and degenerative diseases like Parkinson’s.

During high-dose radiation therapy treatment, given to kill advanced cancer, normal stem cells found in bone marrow are also destroyed. Without a bone marrow transplant, new blood cells cannot be produced and the patient will die.

When bone marrow or adult stem cells are taken from a matching donor and injected into the patient after radiation or chemotherapy, the cells move through the recipient’s blood stream and settle in the same type of tissue they inhabited in the donor.

Although bone marrow is the best known reservoir of stem cells, only one of 100,000 cells in the marrow is a stem cell. There are also small reservoirs of stem cells in other major organs, such as brain, muscle, heart and other tissue.

The research team also included Andrew Lee, Rethinasamy Prabhakar, PhD, and Keith Stringer, MD, PhD. Their work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the National Blood Foundation.

More than 40,000 bone marrow transplants are performed each year worldwide, about 25,000 using the recipient’s own tissue, and 15,000 using tissue from matching donors.

Sheryl Hilton | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uc.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht Nanoparticle Exposure Can Awaken Dormant Viruses in the Lungs
16.01.2017 | Helmholtz Zentrum München - Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt

nachricht Cholera bacteria infect more effectively with a simple twist of shape
13.01.2017 | Princeton University

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

Im Focus: Newly proposed reference datasets improve weather satellite data quality

UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration

"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...

Im Focus: Repairing defects in fiber-reinforced plastics more efficiently

Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.

Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Multiregional brain on a chip

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

New technology enables 5-D imaging in live animals, humans

16.01.2017 | Information Technology

Researchers develop environmentally friendly soy air filter

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>