Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New finding may aid adult stem cell collection

27.07.2005


CINCINNATI-Cincinnati scientists have discovered how blood-regenerating stem cells move from bone marrow into the blood stream.



The finding has led to the development of a new chemical compound that can accelerate this process (called stem cell mobilization) in mice--which could eventually lead to more efficient stem cell harvesting for human use.

The researchers, from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center and the University of Cincinnati (UC), studied the migration of mouse stem cells to better understand how adult cells move into the bone marrow during stem cell transplants--or can be directed into the blood stream, where they can be more easily harvested for use in transplant procedures.


The team, led by Jose Cancelas, MD, PhD, and David Williams, MD, found that a group of proteins known as the RAC GTPase family plays a significant role in regulating the location and movement of stem cells in bone marrow.

Dr. Cancelas, lead author of the report, is director of research at UC’s Hoxworth Blood Center. Dr. Williams, the senior author, heads experimental hematology at Cincinnati Children’s.

The researchers discovered that by inhibiting RAC GTPase activity in mice, they were able to "instruct" stem cells to move from their home in the bone marrow and into the blood stream, where they can easily be collected. They achieved this using a drug, developed by Cincinnati Children’s faculty member Yi Zheng, PhD, known as NSC23766.

Their findings are reported in the Aug. 6 edition of the scientific journal Nature Medicine.

Scientists have long known that bone marrow stem cells regenerate blood cells. Recent research has also suggested that these cells may help repair damage in other organs, such as the heart and brain.

Injected during transplants procedures, stem cells migrate to a specific location in the bone marrow, where they reestablish the mechanism of blood formation.

"Our findings demonstrate that RAC GTPase proteins are essential for injected stem cells to migrate into the correct location in the bone marrow," said Dr. Williams.

Researching the location of and the factors involved in stem cell regeneration is important to the development of new therapeutic tools in stem cell therapy, said Dr. Cancelas, lead author of the report.

"We wanted to know why stem cells are located in specific pockets of the bone marrow," he said, "and how can they be mobilized to move into the blood stream for easier collection."

Adult stem cell transplantation, or bone marrow transplantation, is used during the treatment of cancer and genetic blood diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, to restore blood cell formation in bone marrow that has been damaged by high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy. It has also shown promise in animal studies for possible treatment of organ damage, such as that seen in heart disease and degenerative diseases like Parkinson’s.

During high-dose radiation therapy treatment, given to kill advanced cancer, normal stem cells found in bone marrow are also destroyed. Without a bone marrow transplant, new blood cells cannot be produced and the patient will die.

When bone marrow or adult stem cells are taken from a matching donor and injected into the patient after radiation or chemotherapy, the cells move through the recipient’s blood stream and settle in the same type of tissue they inhabited in the donor.

Although bone marrow is the best known reservoir of stem cells, only one of 100,000 cells in the marrow is a stem cell. There are also small reservoirs of stem cells in other major organs, such as brain, muscle, heart and other tissue.

The research team also included Andrew Lee, Rethinasamy Prabhakar, PhD, and Keith Stringer, MD, PhD. Their work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the National Blood Foundation.

More than 40,000 bone marrow transplants are performed each year worldwide, about 25,000 using the recipient’s own tissue, and 15,000 using tissue from matching donors.

Sheryl Hilton | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uc.edu

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A Map of the Cell’s Power Station
18.08.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

nachricht On the way to developing a new active ingredient against chronic infections
18.08.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für Infektionsforschung

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>