Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

MDC Researchers Discover New Signaling Pathway in Embryonic Development

10.03.2015

During pregnancy, the mother supplies the fetus with nutrients and oxygen via the placenta. If placental development is impaired, this may lead to growth disorders of the embryo or to life-threatening diseases of the mother such as preeclampsia, a serious condition involving high blood pressure and increased urinary protein excretion.

Now, Dr. Katharina Walentin and Professor Kai Schmidt-Ott of the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch have discovered a new molecular signaling pathway which regulates the development of the placenta. Perturbations of this pathway in mice cause developmental defects of the placenta (Development)*.


Development of the placenta of a mouse The placental labyrinth forms the interface between the blood circulation of the embryo (bottom) and the mother (top). Two of its cell layers are immunofluorescence-stained in red and green, respectively. In the left image the labyrinth is normally developed. In the right image the labyrinth is compact and its branching is impaired, because the gene regulator Grhl2 was inactivated. (Photo: Katharina Walentin/Copyright: MDC)

The study focused on the gene regulator grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2), which the research group has been investigating for a several years. As Dr. Walentin and Professor Schmidt-Ott have now shown, this regulator plays a key role in the development of the placenta. In a previous study, Professor Schmidt-Ott and his team discovered that it regulates the differentiation of epithelial cells – they line the cavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body – in the mouse embryo.

In the current study, the researchers noted that GRHL2 is very active in the healthy placenta, especially in trophoblast cells, which are responsible for the development of the labyrinth. This placental labyrinth forms the interface between the blood circulation of the embryo and the mother.

It ensures the exchange of nutrients and oxygen as well as the removal of embryonic metabolic end products. The trophoblast cells branch out to form the labyrinth, and they are accompanied by fetal blood vessels. Thereby, a large interface is created to facilitate the exchange of metabolites between mother and fetus.

In mice, when the researchers inactivated the gene regulator GRHL2 in the fetal part of the placenta and in the embryo, the development of the labyrinth was severely disrupted. In particular, the branching of the trophoblast cells and the migration of the fetal blood vessels into the placenta were impaired.

When the researchers inactivated the gene regulator only outside the placenta in the embryo, the labyrinth developed normally. Using genome-wide analyses, the MDC researchers found that GRHL2 regulates a defined gene program. Components of this program are critically involved in the development of the placenta.

During their studies, which were funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the Urological Research Foundation, the researchers additionally discovered that GRHL2 and its target genes also display activity in the human placenta. They hope that these findings could be significant for the understanding of developmental abnormalities of the placenta and related pregnancy disorders in humans.

*Development 2015 142:1125-1136; doi:10.1242/dev.113829
A Grhl2-dependent gene network controls trophoblast branching morphogenesis
Katharina Walentin,1,2 Christian Hinze,1,2 Max Werth,1,2,3 Nadine Haase,2 Saaket Varma,4 Robert Morell,5 Annekatrin Aue,1,2 Elisabeth Pötschke,1 David Warburton,4 Andong Qiu,3 Jonathan Barasch,3 Bettina Purfürst,1 Christoph Dieterich,6 Elena Popova1, Michael Bader1, Ralf Dechend,2 Anne Cathrine Staff,7 Zeliha Yesim Yurtdas,1,8,9 Ergin Kilic,10 and Kai M. Schmidt-Ott1,2,11,*
1Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany.2Experimental and Clinical Research Center, a collaboration between the Max Delbrück Center and the Medical Faculty of the Charité, Robert-Rössle-Str. 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany. 3Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. 4Department of Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine Program, Saban Research Institute, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA. 5Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)/National Institutes of Health (NIH), 5Research Court, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.6Bioinformatics, Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing, Robert-Koch-Str. 21, 50931 Cologne, Germany. 7Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Kirkeveien 166, 0450 Oslo, Norway. 8Department of Urology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany. 9Berlin Institute of Urologic Research, Berlin, Germany. 10Department of Pathology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany. 11Department of Nephrology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

Contact:
Barbara Bachtler
Press Department
Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) Berlin-Buch
in the Helmholtz Association
Robert-Rössle-Straße 10
13125 Berlin
Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 30 94 06 - 38 96
Fax: +49 (0) 30 94 06 - 38 33
e-mail: presse@mdc-berlin.de
http://www.mdc-berlin.de/de

Barbara Bachtler | Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin (MDC) Berlin-Buch

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht For a chimpanzee, one good turn deserves another
27.06.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften (MPIMIS)

nachricht New method to rapidly map the 'social networks' of proteins
27.06.2017 | Salk Institute

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Touch Displays WAY-AX and WAY-DX by WayCon

27.06.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Drones that drive

27.06.2017 | Information Technology

Ultra-compact phase modulators based on graphene plasmons

27.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>