Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Intestinal cell defense mechanism against bacteria

31.05.2011
Molecular mechanism of selected autophagy elucidated

Salmonella is widely prevalent in the animal kingdom. The reason we do not suffer from severe intestinal infections very often is due to our body's defence system, which manages to digest invading bacteria.

This is why, generally speaking, a healthy human being will only fall ill if he consumes more than 100.000 salmonella bacteria via a contaminated food source, such as eggs or meat. An international team of researchers, led by Prof. Ivan Dikic from the Goethe University in Frankfurt has now found out how body cells recognise salmonella and render it harmless.

Understanding this process at a molecular level is crucial in identifying new targets for treatment. Tropical and sub-tropical countries in particular, where various sub-species of salmonella are common, are experiencing a rapid increase in resistance to antibiotics, with children at greatest risk.

Salmonella infection begins with bacteria entering the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa. To prevent them multiplying there, special cell organelles, called autophagosomes are activated. These encircle the invaders and then become absorbed in other organelles – lysosomes – that contain certain special digestive enzymes, which break down the bacteria into their constituent parts. But how exactly do the autophagosomes recognise salmonella? Prof. Ivan Dikic and his research group at the Biochemistry Institute II have now shed light on this mechanism.

As reported in a current article in the scientific journal "Science", the salmonella are marked as 'waste material' by the molecule ubiquitin. In order for the autophagosomes to become active, the marked bacteria have to bind to another molecule – LC3 – on the autophagosomal membrane. Here, the protein optineurin plays a key role, linking the marked Salmonella to the autophagosmal LC3, thereby setting off a process of selective autophagy. But optineurin becomes active as a link only after being chemically modified by an enzyme, (in this case it is phosphorylated by the protein kinase TBK1). "We suspect that phosphorylation acts as a regulated switch to trigger selective autophagy of bacteria but might also prove significant in other cargoes like protein aggregates or damaged mitochondria" explains Prof. Ivan Dikic, underlining the importance of these findings. It is thought that impaired autophagy processes may be implicated in, among other things, the development of cancer as well as neurodegenerative diseases.

In the area of infectious diseases, these findings are particularly relevant in view of the fact that gastrointestinal disease caused by Salmonella enterica has rapidly increased since the mid-1980s. In Germany, approx. 30,000 cases were reported to the health authorities in 1985, but by 2005 the figure has risen to 52,000. Worldwide, 94 million people fall ill each year with acute gastroenteritis, and 155,000 of these die. Typhoid, a disease also caused by Salmonella, affects 16 million people annually and mortality rates reach 200,000, with children in particular falling victim to the disease. Bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics so that the potential for treating disease is limited. Chloramphenicol, a formerly popular broad-spectrum antibiotic, is now ineffective, and even Fluoroquinolones, currently a commonly prescribed antibiotic, is proving inadequate in fighting bacteria. As co-author Prof. Dirk Bumann from the Biozentrum at Basel University puts it: "There is a pressing need to find new forms of treatment for infectious diseases. A better understanding of how the body's own defence mechanism makes use of autophagy will certainly help."

Publication: Philipp Wild et al: Phosphorylation of the Autophagy Receptor Optineurin restricts Salmonella growth, Science 26th May 2011 advanced online publication (Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1205405)

Prof. Ivan Dikic | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.uni-frankfurt.de
http://www.biochem2.de

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht The birth of a new protein
20.10.2017 | University of Arizona

nachricht Building New Moss Factories
20.10.2017 | Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg im Breisgau

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>