Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Green chemistry: The sweet conversion of a by-product

22.11.2012
The waste plant materials remaining from palm oil extraction processes can now be converted into a useful sugar

Palm oil extraction annually produces approximately 13 million tons of waste plant matter. Some of this by-product, known as empty fruit bunch (EFB), is currently incinerated to produce heat and electricity to run palm oil mills, but it is now on the path to a sweeter use.

By adapting and optimizing an established technique to convert sugarcane bagasse and corn stover to the useful sugar xylose, a research team in Singapore, led by Jin Chuan Wu from the A*STAR Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, has experimentally extracted high yields of xylose from EFB1.

EFB contains xylan, which is a carbohydrate made up of units of xylose. Xylan is very susceptible to being broken down to these individual sugar molecules in the presence of mild acid. Known as hydrolysis, this process is not widely applied to EFB — despite its well-established use for converting sugarcane bagasse and corn stover — because of difficulties in making it cost effective. The key to Wu and his team’s success was the combination of acids they selected for hydrolyzing EFB: sulfuric (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4). “The combined use of H2SO4 and H3PO4 has a synergistic effect in improving sugar yields,” explains Wu.

Since the elements sulfur and phosphorus are essential for the fermentation of xylose using microbes, the researchers’ combination of acids will play a fundamental role in the further conversion of xylose into other useful chemicals, such as the sugar substitute xylitol, lactic acid and ethanol. After hydrolysis and neutralization, these acid components can be used directly in a microbial fermentation. Hydrolysis requires the levels of these elements to be low, with higher levels being detrimental. In previous EFB hydrolysis techniques, higher concentrations of acids were used, but the levels of sulfur and phosphorous were too high for the microbial fermentation stage.

After discerning the right combination of mild acids, Wu and his team used computer modeling followed by supporting experiments to find the optimal conditions for hydrolysis. They obtained xylose yields of 80–90%. The conditions they optimized included the concentrations of the two acids, the reaction temperature, the dilution of the solution and the size of the EFB particles.

"Next, we will convert the sugars into lactic acids by microbial fermentation using lactic acid bacteria,” explains Wu. This lactic acid will be used for producing polylactic acid: a renewable and completely biodegradable biopolymer, that he says is stable at high temperatures and has broad applications.

The A*STAR-affiliated researchers contributing to this research are from the Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences

Journal information

Zhang, D., Ong, Y. L., Li, Z. & Wu, J. C. Optimization of dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch for high yield production of xylose. Chemical Engineering Journal 181–182, 636–642 (2012)

A*STAR Research | Research asia research news
Further information:
http://www.a-star.edu.sg
http://www.researchsea.com

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht How brains surrender to sleep
23.06.2017 | IMP - Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pathologie GmbH

nachricht A new technique isolates neuronal activity during memory consolidation
22.06.2017 | Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>