Some people react more calmly in stressful situations than others. Certain genes, such as the so-called COMT gene, are thought to play a role in determining our stress response. Researchers from the Vetmeduni Vienna and the University of Vienna have now studied this gene in macaques, a genus of Old World monkeys, and for the first time have shown that a specific variant of the gene is associated with higher excretion of the stress hormone cortisol. The gene variant may also influence social rank among the animals. The results were published in the journal Hormones and Behavior.
Animals that live in groups face a variety of challenging social situations. The competition for food and mating partners as well as the establishment of the social hierarchy are potential stress factors.
Ralf Steinborn, Head of the Genomics Unit of the VetCore Facility for Research at the Vetmeduni Vienna, and ethologist Lena Pflüger from the Department of Anthropology at the University of Vienna, studied Japanese macaques living at Affenberg Landskron in Carinthia, Austria, to investigate how their genetic make-up influences the excretion of the stress hormones and the behaviour of the animals.
“Japanese macaques live in strict hierarchy which entails a high level of aggressive interaction. This makes them ideally suited for a study on stress behaviour,” says Pflüger.
Macaques differ in their stress reaction
Pflüger, first author of the study and scientific director of the Affenberg facility, studied 26 sexually mature males during the mating season, a particularly stressful time for male animals as they must compete for females. She discovered that the amount of a metabolic product of the hormone cortisol in the animals’ faeces differed across individuals.
“The macaques appear to handle stressful situations differently. Some are more courageous than others. We were interested to see whether there were genetic causes for this behaviour and how genetics affects the hormonal stress reaction and social rank,” says Pflüger.
COMT gene controls stress reaction in people
The COMT gene is one of at least 18 genes in humans that control the dopamine system in the brain. Dopamine promotes skills such as planning, decision making and problem solving. Depending on its variant, more or less of the COMT enzyme is produced from the gene, resulting in a faster or slower dopamine metabolization in the brain. Higher amounts of dopamine in the brain increase various cognitive performances but are also associated with increased stress reactions.
Steinborn and Pflüger determined the different variants of the COMT gene in Japanese macaques. This revealed that macaques with high levels of the stress hormone also possess a certain COMT variant that presumably metabolizes dopamine in the brain more slowly. The functionality of this variant and the underlying mechanism resulting in higher stress hormone levels will be determined in further studies.
“Our results indicate that animals with stress-resilient COMT variants acquire higher rank positions in the group. But a direct correlation between COMT variant and social rank has to be investigated more closely in the future,” explains Steinborn.
COMT variants make either warriors or worriers
“The dopamine level in the brain controls various behaviours in people. On the one hand, there are the so-called warrior types. In warriors, the dopamine in the brain is metabolized more quickly. Warriors possess lower cognitive skills and are less easily stressed. The second type are worriers, who score higher in cognitive performance tests but are more easily stressed. However, the dopamine system functions like an orchestra and is not dependent on just one factor,” says Steinborn.
In the future, Pflüger and Steinborn want to study other genes that play a role in the dopamine system of non-human primates. They aim to study a variety of primate species with different social styles. Another research focus will be the functionality of the newly discovered COMT gene variant at the RNA and protein levels.
The article „Allelic variation of the COMT gene in a despotic primate society: A haplotype is related to cortisol excretion in Macaca fuscata”, ba Lena S. Pflüger, Daria R. Gutleb, Martin Hofer, Martin Fieder, Bernard Wallner and Ralf Steinborn was published in the Journal Hormones and Behavior.
About the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna
The University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna in Austria is one of the leading academic and research institutions in the field of Veterinary Sciences in Europe. About 1,300 employees and 2,300 students work on the campus in the north of Vienna which also houses five university clinics and various research sites. Outside of Vienna the university operates Teaching and Research Farms. http://www.vetmeduni.ac.at
Affenberg Facility in Landskron, Carinthia, Austria
Prof. Ralf Steinborn
VetCore Research Facility
Veterinärmedizinische Universität Wien (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 20577-3151
Dipl. Biol. Lena S. Pflüger
Department for Anthropology
Universität of Vienna
T +43 6607332244
Science Communication / Corporate Communications
University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna (Vetmeduni Vienna)
T +43 1 25077-1153
Dr. Susanna Berger | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft
‘Farming’ bacteria to boost growth in the oceans
24.10.2016 | Max-Planck-Institut für marine Mikrobiologie
Calcium Induces Chronic Lung Infections
24.10.2016 | Universität Basel
Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion
Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.
In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
24.10.2016 | Earth Sciences
24.10.2016 | Life Sciences
24.10.2016 | Physics and Astronomy