Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Fatal cellular malfunction identified in Huntington’s disease

24.06.2014

Researchers believe they have learned how mutations in the gene that causes Huntington’s disease kill brain cells, a finding that could open new opportunities for treating the fatal disorder. Scientists first linked the gene to the inherited disease more than 20 years ago.

Huntington’s disease affects five to seven people out of every 100,000. Symptoms, which typically begin in middle age, include involuntary jerking movements, disrupted coordination and cognitive problems such as dementia. Drugs cannot slow or stop the progressive decline caused by the disorder, which leaves patients unable to walk, talk or eat.


Robert Boston

Hiroko Yano, PhD, right, led a team of researchers that learned how the fatal inherited disorder Huntington’s disease kills brain cells. Co-author Albert Kim also is pictured.

Lead author Hiroko Yano, PhD, of Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, found in mice and in mouse brain cell cultures that the disease impairs the transfer of proteins to energy-making factories inside brain cells. The factories, known as mitochondria, need these proteins to maintain their function. When disruption of the supply line disables the mitochondria, brain cells die.

“We showed the problem could be fixed by making cells overproduce the proteins that make this transfer possible,” said Yano, assistant professor of neurological surgery, neurology and genetics. “We don’t know if this will work in humans, but it’s exciting to have a solid new lead on how this condition kills brain cells.”

The findings are available online in Nature Neuroscience.

Huntington’s disease is caused by a defect in the huntingtin gene, which makes the huntingtin protein. Life expectancy after initial onset is about 20 years.

Scientists have known for some time that the mutated form of the huntingtin protein impairs mitochondria and that this disruption kills brain cells. But they have had difficulty understanding specifically how the gene harms the mitochondria.

For the new study, Yano and collaborators at the University of Pittsburgh worked with mice that were genetically modified to simulate the early stages of the disorder.

Yano and her colleagues found that the mutated huntingtin protein binds to a group of proteins called TIM23. This protein complex normally helps transfer essential proteins and other supplies to the mitochondria. The researchers discovered that the mutated huntingtin protein impairs that process.

The problem seems to be specific to brain cells early in the disease. At the same point in the disease process, the scientists found no evidence of impairment in liver cells, which also produce the mutated huntingtin protein.

The researchers speculated that brain cells might be particularly reliant on their mitochondria to power the production and recycling of the chemical signals they use to transmit information. This reliance could make the cells vulnerable to disruption of the mitochondria.

Other neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, have been linked to problems with mitochondria. Scientists may be able to build upon these new findings to better understand these disorders.

Funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (R01 NS039324, R01 NS077748, K01 AG033724), the Huntington’s Disease Society of America (Coalition for the Cure), the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation, and the DSF Charitable Foundation supported this research.

Yano H, Baranov SV, Baranova OV, Kim J, Pan Y, Yablonska S, Carlisle DL, Ferrante RJ, Kim AH, Friedlander RM. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein import by mutant huntingtin. Nature Neuroscience, published online May 18, 2014.

Washington University School of Medicine’s 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient-care institutions in the nation, currently ranked sixth in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

Michael C. Purdy | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
https://news.wustl.edu/news/Pages/27042.aspx

More articles from Life Sciences:

nachricht A novel socio-ecological approach helps identifying suitable wolf habitats
17.02.2017 | Universität Zürich

nachricht New, ultra-flexible probes form reliable, scar-free integration with the brain
16.02.2017 | University of Texas at Austin

All articles from Life Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Switched-on DNA

20.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Second cause of hidden hearing loss identified

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

Prospect for more effective treatment of nerve pain

20.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>