CSE professor Pavel Pevzner (left) and Mathematics assistant professor Glenn Tesler
In 1905, American astronomer Percival Lowell predicted the existence of a new planet he called Planet X. Lowell proved that this new planet existed even though no one had been able to see it in the sky. Twenty-five years later, astronomer Clyde Tombaugh stumbled on images of X photographed from the Flagstaff Observatory in Arizona. Today, that planet is known as Pluto.
While it took twenty-five years for astronomers to go from theory to confirmation of Pluto’s existence, it took genome scientists barely three months in 2003 to confirm a revolutionary new view of what happens in the human genome to cause dramatic evolutionary changes. Now, bioinformaticians at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) -- who posited that ’fragile’ regions exist in the human genome that are more susceptible to gene rearrangements -- are collaborating with biologists to see if their new theory can yield potentially life-saving insights into diseases such as breast cancer, in which chromosomal rearrangements are implicated.
"It took only three months to go from theory to hard scientific evidence that there are regions of the genome that are subject to evolutionary ’earthquakes’ over and over again," says Pavel Pevzner, who holds the Ronald R. Taylor Chair in computer science and engineering at UCSD’s Jacobs School of Engineering. "That is representative of how quickly knowledge is advancing in bioinformatics, and how useful this research can be for medicine and other fields."
Doug Ramsey | UCSD
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More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.
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Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.
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The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
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Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
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