Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

How to make the smallest, most perfect, densest nanowire lattices—and it’s a SNAP

14.03.2003


Researchers participating in the California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI) at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and at Los Angeles (UCLA) have invented a new technique for producing "Ultra High Density Nanowire Lattices and Circuits"--the title of their paper being published expeditiously at 2:00 p.m. March 13 on the "Science Express" website, Science Magazine’s rapid portal for publication of significant research findings to appear subsequently in print in Science.

The method, for which a patent is pending, is akin to intaglio printmaking processes in which printing is done from ink below the surface of the plate. Intaglio processes emboss paper into the plate’s incised lines.

The CNSI nanowires are like the embossed ink on a paper substrate, except that the nanowires are much, much smaller than ink lines. Take, for instance, a grid of crossed nanowires. Each cross represents the element of a simple circuit! The nanowire junction density reported in the "Science Express" article is in excess of 1011 per square centimeter.



The process is, moreover, so straightforward that the authors nicknamed it "SNAP," for Superlattice NAnowire Pattern transfer.

Two and a half years ago, principal investigators into nanoscale phenomena at UCSB and UCLA joined together to form the California NanoSystems Institute. The genesis of the research being reported via the "Science Express" website dates to a meeting between the two university groups in the early days of the Institute when the researchers first got together to describe to each other problems they faced.

At that meeting James Heath, then a chemistry professor at UCLA and now at the California Institute of Technology, explained one big stumbling block to the making of molecular computers. He said that contacts to single molecules had to be established through a massive crosswire array.

To put the problem in its simplest form, attaching a nanowire to each end of a single molecule offers the possibility of creating a molecular switch. Heath and his colleagues have shown that passing a current through this simple circuit changes the molecule configuration and creates a molecular switch with a transistor-like action. What Heath wanted was a crosswire array for establishing electrical contacts to a large ensemble of single molecules.

UCSB Materials Professor Pierre Petroff immediately responded to Heath’s challenge by sketching out on the blackboard the rudiments of the idea for constructing the high density nanowire lattice that is reported in the "Science Express" paper, authored by Heath and Petroff and their postdoc and students.

The first step is construction of the stamp or (to recur to the intaglio analogy) the incised plate. The second step is use of the stamp to make the wires.

Key to the process is the MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) approach to making compound semiconductors by laying down one layer of one type of material and then another of another type of related material--alternating materials layer by layer as if stacking alternating pieces of cardboard and paper. The materials used are standard compound semiconductors gallium arsenide and aluminum gallium arsenide.

Then one takes a piece of the compound semiconductor (say, a two-inch square) and turns it on its side where the pattern of alternation in the materials appears. Next one selectively etches out to a certain depth one of the two materials so that the surface resembles a saw-tooth. That saw-tooth or corrugated surface is the stamp on which the nanowires are formed by plasma deposition of a material--almost any material, metal or semiconductor.

Petroff recalls that he was initially attracted to the idea because the process would be cheap, "a millimeter size stamp without any lithography," as he puts it. "The process allows us to make metal lines," he said, "which are highly perfect. The SNAP process has demonstrated the smallest metal lines with the closest spacing that have ever been made. That is an achievement in itself!

"Through deposition, the channels turn into wires that can be made out of almost any material. After deposition of a metal layer, it can be transferred onto a substrate via epoxy bonding, wafer fusion or other process."

The researchers have measured conductivity over the wires up to 10s of microns in length. (Though the wires extend without touching and without interruption for 100s of microns, they have only tested conductivity over 10s of microns). The researchers have also measured resistance between wires and shown that the wires do not short out.

Repeating the process at right angle to the original impress produces a grid work of crossed wires--and therefore circuits. Petroff figured out how to remove the stamp from the metal wires by etching out an oxide, thereby enabling reuse of the stamp.

"Now, said Petroff, "the question is how do we affix a contact to one wire without touching another. That’s the real challenge. There are ways of doing that." He describes one approach using a focus ion beam to deactivate selected wires, which is a little like cutting one strand of hair in a bundle.

In addition to molecular switches, other obvious applications for the nanowire lattice include nano-sensors and bio-sensors. Petroff’s research group is also employing the technique to order nano-particles in an effort to make very high-density magnetic storage devices.

Finally, Petroff points out, the nanowire construction technique will enable investigations into the basic physical properties of matter whose surface energy exceeds interior bulk energy. The construction technique, he emphasizes, is superb for such studies because the nanowires can be made out of such a wide variety of materials.

The paper’s first author is Heath’s postdoc Nicholas Melosh (who received his Ph.D. in materials from UCSB). Melosh said, "The significance of the SNAP technique is that the wires created are near the same length-scales as the fundamental building blocks of matter--molecules and atoms. Potentially, these wires could interface with a single molecule."

Heath’s graduate student Akram Boukai is also an author. The other authors are Petroff’s graduate students: Frederic Diana, Brian Geradot, and Antonio Badolato. A note at the end of the paper thanks Caltech Physics Professor Michael Roukes for teaching the CNSI researchers "how to perform high frequency nanomechanical resonator measurements."

Jacquelyn Savani | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.engineering.ucsb.edu/

More articles from Interdisciplinary Research:

nachricht Combating sulphuric acid corrosion at wastewater plants: Graz scientists develop new solution
23.02.2018 | Technische Universität Graz

nachricht Stealth Virus for Cancer Therapy
31.01.2018 | Universität Zürich

All articles from Interdisciplinary Research >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Attoseconds break into atomic interior

A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.

In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...

Im Focus: Good vibrations feel the force

A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.

By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...

Im Focus: Developing reliable quantum computers

International research team makes important step on the path to solving certification problems

Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...

Im Focus: In best circles: First integrated circuit from self-assembled polymer

For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.

In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...

Im Focus: Demonstration of a single molecule piezoelectric effect

Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale

Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

2nd International Conference on High Temperature Shape Memory Alloys (HTSMAs)

15.02.2018 | Event News

Aachen DC Grid Summit 2018

13.02.2018 | Event News

How Global Climate Policy Can Learn from the Energy Transition

12.02.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Basque researchers turn light upside down

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Finnish research group discovers a new immune system regulator

23.02.2018 | Health and Medicine

Attoseconds break into atomic interior

23.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>