Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Research Team Finds First Evolutionary Branching for Bilateral Animals

28.09.2009
In the most computationally intensive phylogenetic analysis to date, an international research team led by Brown University has found the first evolutionary branching for bilateral animals.

The researchers determined that the flatworm group Acoelomorpha is a product of the deepest split within the bilateral creatures — multicelled organisms that, like humans, have symmetrical body forms. Results appear online in Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

When it comes to understanding a critical junction in animal evolution, some short, simple flatworms have been a real thorn in scientists’ sides. Specialists have jousted over the proper taxonomic placement of a group of worms called Acoelomorpha. This collection of worms, which comprises roughly 350 species, is part of a much larger group called bilateral animals, organisms that have symmetrical body forms, including humans, insects and worms. The question about acoelomorpha, was: Where do they fit in?

To scientists, acoelomorpha, has been enigmatic, a “rogue animal,” said Casey Dunn, an evolutionary biologist at Brown University. “It has been wandering throughout the animal tree of life.”

The worm wanders no more. Through a laborious genetic sequencing analysis, Dunn and an international team of scientists have settled the long-standing debate and determined that acoelomorpha belongs as a sister clade to other bilateral animals. The finding is significant, Dunn said, because it shows the worm is a product of the deepest split within the bilateral animals, the first evolutionary divergence within the group. Because of that, scientists have gained a key insight into the most recent common ancestor to bilaterians, a species that remains unknown.

The worm is “as distant as an animal can be in bilateria and still be a bilaterian,” said Dunn, assistant professor of biology. “So, now we have two perspectives to (find out about) this common ancestor, the acoelomorphs and all the other bilateral animals.”

The results appear online this week in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

The team, composed of 17 scientists from the United States, France Germany, Sweden, Spain and the United Kingdom, had two more interesting findings:

The debate appears to be over for Xenoturbella, a type of marine worm whose ancestral affiliation had been tossed between worms and mollusks. The researchers reported their genetic analysis shows diminishing evidence for placing xenoturbella within Deuterostomia, one of the major groups within the animal kingdom. Coincidentally, it also shows that xenoturbella may be a close relative to acoelomorpha.

Cycliophora, a single species discovered in 1994 that lives on the bristles surrounding the mouth of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus, has found a home with Entoprocta and Ectoprocta. The researchers base their findings on an analysis that reached further into the genetic makeup of cycliophora than previous studies had done.

The team used a genetic sequencing technique called expressed sequence tags to carry out the phylogenetic studies. The aim of this approach, discusssed in a study led by Dunn that appeared in Nature last year, is to analyze a large number of genes from a large number of animals. For this paper, the researchers looked at 1,487 genes, a 10-fold increase in the number of genes analyzed in previous studies. In all, the researchers logged 2.25 million processor hours on a supercomputer in California to obtain the results. Dunn called the effort the most computationally intensive phylogenetic analysis to date.

Other scientists who contributed to the research are Andreas Hejnol, Mark Martindale and Elaine Seaver, University of Hawaii; Matthias Obst, Goteborg University, Sweden; Alexandros Stamatakis and Michael Ott, Technical University of Munich, Germany; Greg Rouse, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Gregory Edgecombe, Natural History Museum, London; Pedro Martinez and Jaume Baguna, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; Xavier Bailly, Station Biologique de Roscoff, France; Ulf Jondelius, Swedish Museum of Natural History; Matthias Wiens and Werner Muller, Johannes-Gutenberg-University Mainz, Germany; Ward Wheeler, American Museum of Natural History; and Gonzalo Giribet, Harvard University.

The research was funded by the National Science Foundation and the San Diego Supercomputing Center.

Richard Lewis | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.Brown.edu

More articles from Information Technology:

nachricht Football through the eyes of a computer
14.06.2018 | Universität Konstanz

nachricht People recall information better through virtual reality, says new UMD study
14.06.2018 | University of Maryland

All articles from Information Technology >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

Im Focus: Photoexcited graphene puzzle solved

A boost for graphene-based light detectors

Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...

Im Focus: Water is not the same as water

Water molecules exist in two different forms with almost identical physical properties. For the first time, researchers have succeeded in separating the two forms to show that they can exhibit different chemical reactivities. These results were reported by researchers from the University of Basel and their colleagues in Hamburg in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

From a chemical perspective, water is a molecule in which a single oxygen atom is linked to two hydrogen atoms. It is less well known that water exists in two...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

A sprinkle of platinum nanoparticles onto graphene makes brain probes more sensitive

15.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

100 % Organic Farming in Bhutan – a Realistic Target?

15.06.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Perovskite-silicon solar cell research collaboration hits 25.2% efficiency

15.06.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>