Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Sustainable biofuels from forests, grasslands and rangelands

29.04.2010
Analyzing biofuel sources and predicting effects on water, soil and the atmosphere

The promise of switchgrass, the challenges for forests and the costs of corn-based ethanol production: Ecological scientists review the many factors surrounding biofuel crop production and its implications on ecosystem health in three new Biofuels and Sustainability Reports.

Produced by the Ecological Society of America (ESA), the nation's largest organization of ecological scientists, and sponsored by the Energy Foundation, these reports explore the production and use of biofuels from an ecological perspective.

Biofuels are liquid fuels derived from biological materials, such as plant stems and stalks, vegetable oils, forest products or waste materials. The raw materials, called feedstock, can be grown specifically for fuel purposes or can be derived from existing sources such as agricultural residue or municipal garbage. Sustainable biofuels are based on production that does not negatively affect energy flow, nutrient cycles and ecosystem services.

There are many options currently being explored for biofuel production and the reports address the implications of producing biofuels from forests, grasslands, rangelands and agricultural systems and the likely effects on water, soil and the atmosphere.

Sustainable Biofuels from Forests

Marilyn Buford and Daniel Neary from the U.S. Forest Service outline the challenges surrounding the production of sustainable biofuels from woody biomass, including balancing energy demands with water production, wildlife habitats and carbon sequestration in "Sustainable Biofuels from Forests: Meeting the Challenge."

Woody biomass from forests can be converted to biofuels, biobased products and biopower through thermochemical (heat and pressure converts woody biomass into alcohols and other chemicals), biochemical (woody biomass is broken down into sugars) and direct combustion methods. The researchers suggest that 334 million dry metric tons of forest wastes and residues could be produced each year on a sustainable basis in the U.S. These residues and wastes would come from logging activities, processing mills and pulp and paper production among other sources.

Grasslands, Rangelands and Agricultural Systems

In "Grasslands, Rangelands and Agricultural Systems," scientists Rob Mitchell, Linda Wallace, Wallace Wilhelm, Gary Varvel and Brian Wienhold discuss sustainable biofuel options in grasslands and rangelands that dominate the mid-region of the U.S. They specifically address recent interest from policymakers and energy producers in switchgrass for bioenergy, and the effects this perennial crop has on soil and water.

"Switchgrass has garnered a lot of attention as a potentially efficient, profitable and environmentally-friendly biofuel crop," says Rob Mitchell from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. "It is known for its environmental advantages on marginal cropland like reducing inputs, controlling erosion, sequestering carbon and enhancing wildlife habitat. But there is an array of factors to consider. For example, switchgrass roots run deeper than other crops, so deep soil samples are required to determine the exact amount of fertilizer to be applied to prevent nutrient run-off. Therefore, switchgrass, as with all biofuel crops, will require innovative and site-specific management practices in order to be economically and environmentally sustainable."

Growing Plants for Fuel

"Growing Plants for Fuel: Predicting Effects on Water, Soil and the Atmosphere," authored by Philip Robertson, Stephen Hamilton, Stephen Del Grosso and William Parton, reviews the trade-offs associated with gasoline blended with corn-based ethanol. They describe the consequences of this particular biofuel on the atmosphere, marine and freshwater ecosystems, wildlife habitats and on the area of land available for food production.

The researchers also discuss the potential benefits of cellulosic feedstocks, such as the woody biomass and switchgrass methods listed above, as alternative biofuel feedstocks that could avoid many of the downsides of grain-based biofuel crops, such as corn.

These three reports join an additional report published in January called "Biofuels: Implications for Land Use and Biodiversity." In that ESA report, scientists Virginia Dale, Keith Kline, John Wiens and Joseph Fargione review current research on biofuel production and its potential effects on ecosystems. They also analyze the social, economic and ecological challenges of biofuel production and the most effective routes to developing sustainable, renewable fuel alternatives.

All four reports are available online at http://esa.org/biofuelsreports/. The final report in the series—a synthesis of the ecological dimensions of biofuel production—will be published later in 2010.

The Energy Foundation is a partnership of major donors interested in solving the world's energy problems. Their mission is to advance energy efficiency and renewable energy—new technologies that are essential components of a clean energy future. Visit http://www.ef.org for details.

The Ecological Society of America is the world's largest professional organization of ecologists, representing 10,000 scientists in the United States and around the globe. Since its founding in 1915, ESA has promoted the responsible application of ecological principles to the solution of environmental problems through ESA reports, journals, research, and expert testimony to Congress. ESA publishes four journals and convenes an annual scientific conference. Visit the ESA website at http://www.esa.org.

Katie Kline | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.esa.org

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Gran Chaco: Biodiversity at High Risk
17.01.2018 | Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

nachricht Dead trees are alive with fungi
10.01.2018 | Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ)

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Scientists decipher key principle behind reaction of metalloenzymes

So-called pre-distorted states accelerate photochemical reactions too

What enables electrons to be transferred swiftly, for example during photosynthesis? An interdisciplinary team of researchers has worked out the details of how...

Im Focus: The first precise measurement of a single molecule's effective charge

For the first time, scientists have precisely measured the effective electrical charge of a single molecule in solution. This fundamental insight of an SNSF Professor could also pave the way for future medical diagnostics.

Electrical charge is one of the key properties that allows molecules to interact. Life itself depends on this phenomenon: many biological processes involve...

Im Focus: Paradigm shift in Paris: Encouraging an holistic view of laser machining

At the JEC World Composite Show in Paris in March 2018, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be focusing on the latest trends and innovations in laser machining of composites. Among other things, researchers at the booth shared with the Aachen Center for Integrative Lightweight Production (AZL) will demonstrate how lasers can be used for joining, structuring, cutting and drilling composite materials.

No other industry has attracted as much public attention to composite materials as the automotive industry, which along with the aerospace industry is a driver...

Im Focus: Room-temperature multiferroic thin films and their properties

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) and Tohoku University have developed high-quality GFO epitaxial films and systematically investigated their ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. They also demonstrated the room-temperature magnetocapacitance effects of these GFO thin films.

Multiferroic materials show magnetically driven ferroelectricity. They are attracting increasing attention because of their fascinating properties such as...

Im Focus: A thermometer for the oceans

Measurement of noble gases in Antarctic ice cores

The oceans are the largest global heat reservoir. As a result of man-made global warming, the temperature in the global climate system increases; around 90% of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

10th International Symposium: “Advanced Battery Power – Kraftwerk Batterie” Münster, 10-11 April 2018

08.01.2018 | Event News

See, understand and experience the work of the future

11.12.2017 | Event News

Innovative strategies to tackle parasitic worms

08.12.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Gran Chaco: Biodiversity at High Risk

17.01.2018 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Only an atom thick: Physicists succeed in measuring mechanical properties of 2D monolayer materials

17.01.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Fraunhofer HHI receives AIS Technology Innovation Award 2018 for 3D Human Body Reconstruction

17.01.2018 | Awards Funding

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>