The Wageningen researchers of the institutes Applied Plant Research (PPO) and Plant Research International (PRI) also found vinasse to considerably stimulate leaf degradation during winter. This even more reduces the quantity of scab inoculum in the orchard since the fungus is overwintering in leaves.
PPO and PRI are intensively cooperating with various European partners on sustainable scab control in organic apple growing. Apple scab is caused by a fungus (Venturia inaequalis) and is a major economic problem in all apple growing areas. The disease develops extremely well in climates with rainy spells in spring. The disease develops dark brown lesions on leaves and fruits, which makes them difficult to sell. Vinasse is a fermented waste product of the sugar processing industry and is used on a small scale as fertilizer in organic fruit growing.
Leaves with apple scab symptoms were placed between iron nettings and then dipped into different concentrations of vinasse in autumn. The vinasse concentration range was 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 l per ha when recalculating the dipping concentration used during the experiments towards a commercial application in the orchard by treating the dropped leaves on the soil. Subsequently, the nettings were placed on the soil in an organic orchard. Leaves degraded naturally during winter and the remains of the leaves were examined for the presence of apple scab ascospores in early spring. The highest reduction in ascospores of more than 95 % was found at a dose level of 200 and 400 l vinasse per ha. This is a normal dose for soil fertilization in organic orchards.
Organic growers in Europe largely depend on copper, sulphur and lime sulphur to fight apple scab in spring and summer. Apple growers can now substantially reduce apple scab inoculum by leaf shredding and autumn application of vinasse. These sanitation practices help to reduce the use of copper in spring. This is a step forward in sustainable organic scab control, since copper is no longer allowed in the Netherlands for this purpose while the European Commission has decided to ban the use of copper throughout Europe.
This study was carried out in the context of the EU project REPCO (project no. 501452), which stands for Replacement of Copper in Organic Production of Grapevine and Apple in Europe, and is partly financed by the 6th Framework Programme of the European Commission. The goal of this project is to find alternatives for the use of copper in organic grapevine and apple production. Project Counsellor is Danièle Tissot Boireau, DG RTD Unit E03. Safety of Food Production Systems, SDME 8/22 Belgium (email@example.com). The project is coordinated by Jürgen Köhl, Plant Research International, Wageningen UR (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Jac Niessen | alfa
Scientists team up on study to save endangered African penguins
16.11.2017 | Florida Atlantic University
Climate change: Urban trees are growing faster worldwide
13.11.2017 | Technische Universität München
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
20.11.2017 | Earth Sciences
20.11.2017 | Earth Sciences
20.11.2017 | Life Sciences