Forest ecosystems may produce large volumes of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important greenhouse gas, which affects the atmosphere's chemical and radiative properties. Yet, our understanding of controls on forest N2O emissions is insufficient. This study investigates the quantitative and qualitative relationships between nitrogen-cycling and N2O production in European forests.
The authors conclude that changes in forest composition in response to land use activities and global change may have serious implications for regional budgets of greenhouse gases. It also became clear that accelerated nitrogen inputs predicted for forest ecosystems in Europe may lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions from forest ecosystems.
Read article: http://www.biogeosciences.net/3/135/2006/bg-3-135-2006.html
Bacterial carbon sources in coastal sediments: a cross-system analysis based on stable isotope data of biomarkers.
Coastal ecosystems are among the most productive regions in the world ocean. Because of the ample nutrient supplies, the coastal zone accounts for about 20% of oceanic primary production — despite its small geographic extent. Local organic producers span from phytoplankton to bottom-dwelling algae to seagrasses and mangroves. Because of the high rates of sediment accumulation, among other factors, a comparatively large percentage of this new organic matter survives early decay and is buried into the geologic record. Coastal regions also receive large inputs of organic material reworked and transported from surrounding regions by strong currents, including contributions from rivers that drain adjacent land areas. Through the combined effects of high production, large inputs of reworked material, and efficient sequestration, a vast majority of the world’s organic carbon burial occurs in these marginal marine settings.
As the dominant site of oceanic organic carbon burial, the coastal zone factors prominently in most models for short- and long-term carbon cycling and, correspondingly, in scientists’ estimates for CO2 variation in the atmosphere on a variety of time scales. In this paper, Bouillon and Boschker explore this complex organic reservoir through carbon isotope analysis of the many constituents, including large plant fragments and lipid biomarkers that are chemically extracted from the sediments and fingerprint bacterial sources.
Using this approach the authors explored which of the organic components bacteria most easily degrade and thus which have the potential for burial and removal from at least the short-term carbon cycle. Importantly, the authors compared the carbon isotope properties of bacterial biomarkers from a wide range of coastal settings and concluded that the microbes are feeding on a diverse assortment of organic constituents. In fact, at most sites where organic matter is readily available, bacteria show little selectivity in the compounds they decompose.
In light of the previous consensus that such materials should show widely varying biodegradability, this result will certainly raise questions, fuel future work, and ultimately refine our understanding of how carbon flows through its global biogeochemical cycle and impacts the composition of the atmosphere.
Read article: http://www.biogeosciences.net/3/175/2006/bg-3-175-2006.html
Dispersal of Fish Eggs by Water Birds – Just a Myth?
19.02.2018 | Universität Basel
Removing fossil fuel subsidies will not reduce CO2 emissions as much as hoped
08.02.2018 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.
The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
23.03.2018 | Event News
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences
23.03.2018 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
23.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy