Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Laughing Gas, Forests, Coastal Regions and Global Warming

11.09.2006
Sources of nitrous oxide emitted from European forest soils.

Forest ecosystems may produce large volumes of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important greenhouse gas, which affects the atmosphere's chemical and radiative properties. Yet, our understanding of controls on forest N2O emissions is insufficient. This study investigates the quantitative and qualitative relationships between nitrogen-cycling and N2O production in European forests.

The authors conclude that changes in forest composition in response to land use activities and global change may have serious implications for regional budgets of greenhouse gases. It also became clear that accelerated nitrogen inputs predicted for forest ecosystems in Europe may lead to increased greenhouse gas emissions from forest ecosystems.

Read article: http://www.biogeosciences.net/3/135/2006/bg-3-135-2006.html

Bacterial carbon sources in coastal sediments: a cross-system analysis based on stable isotope data of biomarkers.

Coastal ecosystems are among the most productive regions in the world ocean. Because of the ample nutrient supplies, the coastal zone accounts for about 20% of oceanic primary production — despite its small geographic extent. Local organic producers span from phytoplankton to bottom-dwelling algae to seagrasses and mangroves. Because of the high rates of sediment accumulation, among other factors, a comparatively large percentage of this new organic matter survives early decay and is buried into the geologic record. Coastal regions also receive large inputs of organic material reworked and transported from surrounding regions by strong currents, including contributions from rivers that drain adjacent land areas. Through the combined effects of high production, large inputs of reworked material, and efficient sequestration, a vast majority of the world’s organic carbon burial occurs in these marginal marine settings.

As the dominant site of oceanic organic carbon burial, the coastal zone factors prominently in most models for short- and long-term carbon cycling and, correspondingly, in scientists’ estimates for CO2 variation in the atmosphere on a variety of time scales. In this paper, Bouillon and Boschker explore this complex organic reservoir through carbon isotope analysis of the many constituents, including large plant fragments and lipid biomarkers that are chemically extracted from the sediments and fingerprint bacterial sources.

Using this approach the authors explored which of the organic components bacteria most easily degrade and thus which have the potential for burial and removal from at least the short-term carbon cycle. Importantly, the authors compared the carbon isotope properties of bacterial biomarkers from a wide range of coastal settings and concluded that the microbes are feeding on a diverse assortment of organic constituents. In fact, at most sites where organic matter is readily available, bacteria show little selectivity in the compounds they decompose.

In light of the previous consensus that such materials should show widely varying biodegradability, this result will certainly raise questions, fuel future work, and ultimately refine our understanding of how carbon flows through its global biogeochemical cycle and impacts the composition of the atmosphere.

Read article: http://www.biogeosciences.net/3/175/2006/bg-3-175-2006.html

Dick van der Wateren | alfa
Further information:
http://www.egu-media.net/
http://www.landforms.org

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht How does the loss of species alter ecosystems?
18.05.2017 | Deutsches Zentrum für integrative Biodiversitätsforschung (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

nachricht Excess diesel emissions bring global health & environmental impacts
16.05.2017 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>