Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Bugs expose underground carbon traffic system 10 times more important than fossil fuel burning

07.10.2005


The flow of carbon through soil is ten times greater than the amount of carbon moved around by the burning of fossil fuel but until now how this happens was at best poorly understood. Soil was almost literally a black box to scientists interested in carbon. Now researchers at the University of Warwick have been able to shed light in that black box by getting a particular class of insects to expose the key underground carbon traffic system - by eating it.



The University of Warwick team worked with researchers from Aberdeen, Lancaster and Sheffield, to try and establish if plant associated fungi - arbulscar mycorrhizal (AM) fungi - found on the roots of 80% of all land plants had any role in the movement of atmospheric carbon to soil (fixed by plants in the form of CO2). AM fungi produce filaments that spread widely throughout the soil (sometimes referred to as the mycorrhizosphere) and they are known to be important for effective uptake by plants of water and phosphates but they were not known to play any role in the movement of carbon through the soil.

The researchers developed novel soil cores that were engineered with openings covered by nylon mesh with tiny pores just big enough to allow AM mycelia to grow into them but too small for any insects or other micro-fauna (including Collembola, soil mites) to get into the cores. The cores were then filled with soil which was frozen -80oC to kill any other insects/microfauna and inserted into experimental grassland to enable colonization by AM fungi from the surrounding plants. Twenty mites from the order Collembola, which would view the AM mycelia as food stuff, were introduced to half of the cores. After another four weeks the grassland was exposed to a particular form of carbon dioxide (a stable isotope of carbon, 13C) for 7 hours, a technique called pulse labelling. Concentration of 13C in cores was then analysed. The soil cores which were exposed to the mites were found to have 32% less 13C than the control cores. This showed that Collembola’s consumption of the arbulscar mycorrhizal mycelia had disrupted a key pathway transporting carbon from plants to soil.


As a final check the researchers examined both the cores with and without Collembola for a particular phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) that is characteristic for AM mycelia. They found that this particular PLFA contained significant amounts of 13C in cores not exposed to Collembola. However those soil cores that were exposed to collembola which fed on the mycorrhizal mycelia did not have 13C enriched PFLAs..

This research establishes that arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelia provide a major highway in terms of transporting carbon from plants to soil. This new understanding of how both mycorrhizal mycelia and the insect population of soil impact on the transport of carbon will assist researchers trying to understand what preserves a healthy soil and provides recycled carbon for supporting below ground biodiversity. It will also open up a new understanding of the food-webs and nutrient flow in soil which is fundamental to sustainable agriculture.

Peter Dunn | alfa
Further information:
http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/pressreleases/NE1000000124377/

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Global threat to primates concerns us all
19.01.2017 | Deutsches Primatenzentrum GmbH - Leibniz-Institut für Primatenforschung

nachricht Reducing household waste with less energy
18.01.2017 | FIZ Karlsruhe – Leibniz-Institut für Informationsinfrastruktur GmbH

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Quantum optical sensor for the first time tested in space – with a laser system from Berlin

For the first time ever, a cloud of ultra-cold atoms has been successfully created in space on board of a sounding rocket. The MAIUS mission demonstrates that quantum optical sensors can be operated even in harsh environments like space – a prerequi-site for finding answers to the most challenging questions of fundamental physics and an important innovation driver for everyday applications.

According to Albert Einstein's Equivalence Principle, all bodies are accelerated at the same rate by the Earth's gravity, regardless of their properties. This...

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Tracking movement of immune cells identifies key first steps in inflammatory arthritis

23.01.2017 | Health and Medicine

Electrocatalysis can advance green transition

23.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

New technology for mass-production of complex molded composite components

23.01.2017 | Process Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>