Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Assumptions of Effects of Rising Carbon Dioxide Probed

15.02.2005


How will rising levels of carbon dioxide influence ecosystems? Scientists have tackled this question numerous times, but none have tested the assumption that a single-abrupt increase in CO2 concentrations will produce changes similar to gradual increases over several decades. UCR scientist part of research team published in the journal Nature.


Photo Caption: mycorrhizal fungi



A paper in the Feb. 10 issue of the journal Nature titled Abrupt Rise in Atmospheric CO2 Overestimates Community Response in a Model Plant-Soil System, takes a closer look at this aspect of climate modeling. University of California, Riverside Professor of Plant Pathology and Biology, Michael Allen is part of the research team that wrote the paper with John N. Klironomos, Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad, Benjamin E. Wolfe, and Jeff R. Powell of the Department of Botany, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada; and Matthias C. Rilling and Jeff Piotrowski of the Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana. The work was supported by the Canadian Government, the U. S. Department of Energy, and the U. S. National Science Foundation.

The team observed the response of a mycorrhizal fungal community to CO2 concentrations over a span of six years, which included 21 generations. The fungi, which live around the root systems of plants, are considered a beneficial partner to plants – helping them cope with natural stresses, such as low soil fertility, drought and temperature extremes.


The fungi were exposed to either an abrupt or gradual increase in this atmospheric gas. The group exposed to a slow rise in CO2 concentration showed less of a decline in the number of species per sample – a standard ecological measure of biodiversity – of the fungi than did the group exposed to the abrupt change, but the difference was not significant.

The findings suggest that previous work has overestimated the magnitude of community and ecosystem responses to carbon dioxide changes, the researchers say.

The study fulfills a goal in the larger body of climate change research to predict how ecological systems will function and be structured in the future, when the climate is expected to be significantly different from what it is today. Atmospheric CO2 is expected to continue rising during the next century to concentrations of 550 parts per million, significantly greater than today’s concentrations of almost 370 p.p.m. A major research effort is under way to understand the changes that will occur to population, community and ecosystem structures, and functions in response to these expected CO2 increases.

“Climate change is one of several potential responses of the rapidly escalating atmospheric CO2. Subtle ecosystem responses ranging from reduced plant nutrition to increasing crop pest activity are also postulated,” said Allen. “Our research demonstrates that communities of organisms can adjust to shifting conditions, and points to the need for careful experiments that study dynamics of our environment integrating time if we are to predict what factors will be of concern to the future health of our cropping and wildland ecosystems.”

The University of California, Riverside is a major research institution and a national center for the humanities. Key areas of research include nanotechnology, genomics, environmental studies, digital arts and sustainable growth and development. With a current undergraduate and graduate enrollment of nearly 17,000, the campus is projected to grow to 21,000 students by 2010. Located in the heart of inland Southern California, the nearly 1,200-acre, park-like campus is at the center of the region’s economic development. Visit www.ucr.edu or call 951-UCR-NEWS for more information. Media sources are available at http://www.mediasources.ucr.edu/.

Ricardo Duran | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ucr.edu

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht A new indicator for marine ecosystem changes: the diatom/dinoflagellate index
21.08.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung Warnemünde

nachricht Value from wastewater
16.08.2017 | Hochschule Landshut

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Nagoya physicists resolve long-standing mystery of structure-less transition

21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuit

21.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Scientists from the MSU studied new liquid-crystalline photochrom

21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>