Forest ecologists have long wondered why forests decline in the absence of catastrophic disturbances. A new study, in part funded by the British Ecological Society, and published in this week’s Science, has shed new light on this problem.
This study investigated natural forested stands across each of six ’chronosequences’ or sequences of soils of different ages since the most recent major disturbance. These sequences were located in a range of climatic zones, including northern Sweden (a series of forested islands near Arjeplog), Alaska, Hawaii, eastern Australia and two locations in southern New Zealand. All sequences consisted of forest stands on soils ranging in age from those formed very recently to those at least several thousand years old; the oldest soils studied were 4.1 million years old in Hawaii.
For all six sequences, forest biomass (mass of trees per unit area) increased initially as soil fertility increased. However, after thousands to tens of thousands of years, forest biomass declined sharply for all sequences, to a level where some sites could no longer support trees. The researchers found that this decline in all cases was due to reduced levels of plant-available phosphorus relative to nitrogen in the soil. As soils age, phosphorus becomes increasingly limiting for trees because it is not biologically renewable in the ecosystem. Conversely, nitrogen is biologically renewable (because atmospheric nitrogen can be converted by soil bacteria into forms of nitrogen that trees can use), so nitrogen limitation does not contribute to forest decline in these systems, contrary to popular views. There was also evidence from this study that phosphorous limitation during stage of forest decline negatively affected soil organisms, and therefore reduced their potential to release nutrients from the soil for maintaining tree growth.
Becky Allen | alfa
Bioinvasion on the rise
15.02.2017 | Universität Konstanz
Litter Levels in the Depths of the Arctic are On the Rise
10.02.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung
In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".
Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering
17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine