Satellite Images of Houston Metro Area
These images show the Houston metropolitan area, where buildings, roads and other built surfaces create urban heat islands that can affect local rain patterns. The images were taken by ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer), an imaging instrument that is flying on Terra, a satellite launched in December 1999 as part of NASAs Earth Observing System (EOS). Credit: NASA/J
Higher Rainfall Rates Downwind of Texas Cities
This image shows areas where urban heat islands influenced higher rainfall rates (in blue) downwind of major cities connected by Interstate 35, known as the I-35 corridor in Texas. The winds that carried clouds and rainfall downwind (in this case, south and east of urban areas) occurred roughly 3.0 kilometers (1.9 miles) above the surface. Rainfall was measured by the precipitation radar instrument on NASAs Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The higher rainfall rates depicted here were derived from measurements of mean monthly rainfall during the warm seasons (May through September) from 1998 through 2000. Credit: Jim Williams, Scientific Visualization Studio, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
New evidence from satellites, models, and ground observations reveal urban areas, with all their asphalt, buildings, and aerosols, are impacting local and possibly global climate processes. This is according to some of the world’s top scientists convening in a special session at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco.
To study urban impact on local rainfall, Dr. J. Marshall Shepherd of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., and Steve Burian of the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, used the world’s first space-based rain radar, aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, and dense rain gauge networks on land to determine there are higher rainfall rates during the summer months downwind of large cities like Houston and Atlanta. Burian and Shepherd offer new evidence that rainfall patterns and daily precipitation trends have changed in regions downwind of Houston from a period of pre-urban growth, 1940 to 1958, to a post-urban growth period, 1984 to 1999.
Cities tend to be one to 10 degrees Fahrenheit (0.56 to 5.6 degrees Celsius) warmer than surrounding suburbs and rural areas. Warming from urban heat islands, the varied heights of urban structures that alter winds, and interactions with sea breezes are believed to be the primary causes for the findings in a coastal city like Houston.
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Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...
Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.
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The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
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With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
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For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
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