Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Insect infestation models may shed light on insect and disease outbreaks

01.11.2002


Models of Larch budmoth outbreaks in the European Alps may eventually show scientists how to model a variety of disease and insect eruptions that rely on a combination of enemy, host and spatial movement to decimate populations, according to a team of ecologists.



"We use theoretical models to help understand the spatial component in these outbreaks and to predict how spatial spread occurs," says Dr. Ottar N. Bjornstad, assistant professor of entomology and biology at Penn State. "With local outbreaks we expect a complex spread of pest species through the landscape, here, the species spreads in waves."

The Larch budmoth feeds on larch trees, a common evergreen variety, consuming the needles and defoliating the branches. In the European Alps, the infestation moves as predictable waves from west to east completely defoliating forests beginning in the French and Italian Alps and moving across the continent through Switzerland and into Austria.


Bjornstad; M. Peltonen and A.M. Liebhold of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and W. Baltensweiler, retired from the Swiss Institute of Technology, Zurich, report in today’s (Nov. 1) Science that "forty years of detailed surveys of defoliation caused by the Larch budmoth testify to conspicuous waves in the space-time dynamics of this system.

Creating models that predict this wave spread required consideration of the pest, its parasites, and the geographic distribution of the Larch. The historic pattern of Larch outbreaks is outbreaks that occur about every nine years and last for three to four years. The researchers confirmed that the spread of the outbreaks occurred in traveling waves and that space-time models accurately predict the geographic spread and timing of the outbreaks.

The Larch budmoth never dies out in any area of the Alps even though it totally defoliates an area. A small number of insects remain, feeding off resources left behind. While the larch trees recover, the budmoth population is kept in check by parasitic wasps that lay their eggs in the budmoth larvae. When the larva pupates, rather than a moth appearing, the adult form of the wasp emerges. Eventually, as resources improve, the budmoth population increases to reach pest levels and, because the larvae totally defoliate an area, the outbreak moves on and travels in waves through the Alps moving 125 to 186 miles per year.

"We managed to make a theoretical spatial and temporal model of the interaction between the pests, in this case the Larch budmoth, the enemy parasitic wasp and the food supply," says Bjornstad. "Generating simple geographic models allows us to predict the spatial nature of the outbreak."

The Penn State researcher notes that only with the use of fast, large cluster computers that can address spatially complex equations could this work be done. The models may be locally simple, but as the area covered increases, the dynamics become extremely complex. Unfortunately, a template does not exist to model the behavior of insects like this or human diseases that also spread in similar ways.

"We are currently working to generalize the model framework to other pest systems," says Bjornstad. "With human diseases, for example, modeling the movement of people is different and more complex than modeling the movement of moths."

While a general model will probably not be possible, a class of models researchers could use to predict insect outbreaks as well as disease epidemics such as smallpox, and measles in humans or foot-and-mouth disease in domestic animals, is slowly emerging. In each case researchers must develop a deep understanding of the specific local interactions between the pest and its resource.

"The emerging picture is that if you understand the local interactions and use a class of models that embed these on maps, you can make really good predictions," says Bjornstad.

In essence, the researchers are developing a methodology for creating models that are applicable to infectious diseases in humans, animals and plants as well as insect outbreaks. Bjornstad is currently finalizing other research on human pathogens using very similar methodology.

"The key to understanding the spatial network of disease spread for humans is more difficult," Bjornstad says. "Human movement patterns are more complex so the models have to be tweaked in each system to accommodate these differences. However, the overall methodology can model spatial outbreaks whether insect or human."

Andrea Messer | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.psu.edu/

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Upcycling 'fast fashion' to reduce waste and pollution
03.04.2017 | American Chemical Society

nachricht Litter is present throughout the world’s oceans: 1,220 species affected
27.03.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

DGIST develops 20 times faster biosensor

24.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Nanoimprinted hyperlens array: Paving the way for practical super-resolution imaging

24.04.2017 | Materials Sciences

Atomic-level motion may drive bacteria's ability to evade immune system defenses

24.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>