The Rocky Mountain locust became extinct in 1902, but their cousins, grasshoppers and Mormon crickets, today still cause an estimated $1.5 billion (2005 U.S. dollars) in damage to grazing lands in the American West.
A long-running research project directed by University of Notre Dame biologist Gary Belovsky, who also is director of the Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC), is examining what limits grasshopper populations and the role played by grasshoppers in prairie ecosystems.
Belovsky first started studying grasshopper populations in 1978 at the National Bison Range, now a location for one of UNDERC's national undergraduate programs. Following the last major Western grasshopper outbreak in 1985, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (UDSA-APHIS) asked Belovsky to help study the grasshopper's feeding preferences and population dynamics in western Montana.
Belovsky's research demonstrates that no single factor leads to a grasshopper outbreak, but, rather, multiple interacting factors are necessary. This requires sound understanding of how food and predators influence these native insects in combination with varying climate.
One of his key discoveries is that grasshoppers have a major impact on plants by changing the way nitrogen cycles in grasslands. Where grasshoppers speed up the process of nitrogen recycling by selectively feeding on plants that take longer to decompose, plant production increases. However, if they selectively feed on plants that decompose quickly, nitrogen becomes less available to the soil and plant production decreases.
Belovsky's findings helped change the way USDA/APHIS carries out its mandate to control grasshoppers on federal rangeland. Previously, the agency sprayed large swaths of land with insecticides, including areas where grasshoppers were actually befitting plant growth by speeding up nitrogen recycling. USDA/APHIS now relies on more restricted spraying, focusing on those areas where grasshoppers are damaging plants.
Belovsky also used National Science Foundation funding to develop mathematical models to help predict significant spikes in grasshopper populations based on the number of grasshopper eggs. If egg numbers are low in the spring, grasshopper predators like birds and spiders can usually keep the populations under control. However, when eggs in the spring are especially numerous, more grasshoppers hatch and predators are unable to keep the populations under control, which can signal significant problems for rangeland ecosystems. However, if grasshoppers are very abundant, the young grasshoppers may actually compete for the rarer highly nutritious food plants and starve to death before they can grow up and cause damage to the range.
Belovsky's research is now the longest running experimental study at a site examining what controls grasshopper numbers and, as such, Belovsky continues to acquire an unusually detailed and rich database of scientific information about Western rangelands. Additionally, UNDERC undergraduates, including a number of Native Americans, learn about this striking ecosystem and some participate in the research.
His research has the potential to make grasshopper plagues, like the Rocky Mountain locust, but a memory.
Gary Belovsky | EurekAlert!
International network connects experimental research in European waters
21.03.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB)
World Water Day 2017: It doesn’t Always Have to Be Drinking Water – Using Wastewater as a Resource
17.03.2017 | ISOE - Institut für sozial-ökologische Forschung
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy