Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

New NASA Images Highlight U.S. Air Quality Improvement

27.06.2014

Anyone living in a major U.S. city for the past decade may have noticed a change in the air. The change is apparent in new NASA satellite images unveiled this week that demonstrate the reduction of air pollution across the country.

After ten years in orbit, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA's Aura satellite has been in orbit sufficiently long to show that people in major U.S. cities are breathing less nitrogen dioxide – a yellow-brown gas that can cause respiratory problems.


Caption:

The impact of technology to reduce emissions of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants is apparent in satellite imagery, which shows the signal of pollution blink out over time. Still, while air quality is improving, power plant emissions of carbon dioxide – a greenhouse gas – remain an issue.

Image Credit: NASA Goddard's Scientific Visualization Studio/T. Schindler

Nitrogen dioxide is one of the six common pollutants regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect human health. Alone it can impact the respiratory system, but it also contributes to the formation of other pollutants including ground-level ozone and particulates, which also carry adverse health effects. The gas is produced primarily during the combustion of gasoline in vehicle engines and coal in power plants. It's also a good proxy for the presence of air pollution in general.

Air pollution has decreased even though population and the number of cars on the roads have increased. The shift is the result of regulations, technology improvements and economic changes, scientists say.

In fact, about 142 million people still lived in areas in the United States with unhealthy levels of air pollution, according to the EPA. Also, high levels of air pollution remain an issue in many other parts of the world, according to the global view from satellites.

"While our air quality has certainly improved over the last few decades, there is still work to do – ozone and particulate matter are still problems," said Bryan Duncan, an atmospheric scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Decision makers and regulatory agencies like EPA have long relied on data from ground sites to inform air quality science and forecasts. NASA, while not directly involved with regulation or making forecasts, provides a consistent, global, space-based view – not possible from any other source – of when and where air pollution occurs.

Another ongoing effort by NASA to study air quality is Discover-AQ, a multi-year airborne mission flying this summer in Denver to learn more about how the wide range of air pollutants viewed from satellites relates to what's happening close to the ground where people live and breathe. The mission flew previously in 2011 over Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C.; in 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley, California; and in 2013 over Houston, Texas.

"You can't control what you don't measure," said Russ Dickerson of the University of Maryland, College Park, and member of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team – created in 2011 by the NASA Applied Sciences Program to serve the needs of U.S. air quality management through the use of Earth Science satellite data, suborbital, and models. "NASA measurements of air quality have value to the people with the authority to control emissions and develop policy." 

The new NASA images also take a close up look at the Ohio River Valley, Northeast Corridor, and some populous U.S. cities. They show how nitrogen dioxide concentrations during spring and summer months, averaged from 2005-2007, compare to the average from 2009-2011.

Measurements of nitrogen dioxide from OMI depict the concentration of the gas throughout a column of air in the troposphere, Earth's lowest atmospheric layer. The images are color-coded: Blue and green denote lower concentrations and orange and red denote higher concentrations, ranging from 1x1015 to 5x1015 molecules per square centimeter, respectively.

Images were composed by NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio based on data and input provided by atmospheric scientists Yasuko Yoshida, Lok Lamsal, and Bryan Duncan, all of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. 

 Kathryn Hansen
NASA's Earth Science News Team

Kathryn Hansen | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/new-nasa-images-highlight-us-air-quality-improvement/

Further reports about: EPA Earth Flight Greenbelt Highlight Improvement NASA Quality Space concentrations dioxide nitrogen ozone pollutants satellite

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Managing an endangered river across the US-Mexico border
18.07.2016 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

nachricht The European pet trade is jeopardising the survival of rare reptile species
13.07.2016 | Helmholtz-Zentrum für Umweltforschung - UFZ

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Newly discovered material property may lead to high temp superconductivity

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ames Laboratory have discovered an unusual property of purple bronze that may point to new ways to achieve high temperature superconductivity.

While studying purple bronze, a molybdenum oxide, researchers discovered an unconventional charge density wave on its surface.

Im Focus: Mapping electromagnetic waveforms

Munich Physicists have developed a novel electron microscope that can visualize electromagnetic fields oscillating at frequencies of billions of cycles per second.

Temporally varying electromagnetic fields are the driving force behind the whole of electronics. Their polarities can change at mind-bogglingly fast rates, and...

Im Focus: Continental tug-of-war - until the rope snaps

Breakup of continents with two speed: Continents initially stretch very slowly along the future splitting zone, but then move apart very quickly before the onset of rupture. The final speed can be up to 20 times faster than in the first, slow extension phase.phases

Present-day continents were shaped hundreds of millions of years ago as the supercontinent Pangaea broke apart. Derived from Pangaea’s main fragments Gondwana...

Im Focus: A Peek into the “Birthing Room” of Ribosomes

Scaffolding and specialised workers help with the delivery – Heidelberg biochemists gain new insights into biogenesis

A type of scaffolding on which specialised workers ply their trade helps in the manufacturing process of the two subunits from which the ribosome – the protein...

Im Focus: New protocol enables analysis of metabolic products from fixed tissues

Scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum München have developed a new mass spectrometry imaging method which, for the first time, makes it possible to analyze hundreds of metabolites in fixed tissue samples. Their findings, published in the journal Nature Protocols, explain the new access to metabolic information, which will offer previously unexploited potential for tissue-based research and molecular diagnostics.

In biomedical research, working with tissue samples is indispensable because it permits insights into the biological reality of patients, for example, in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

GROWING IN CITIES - Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Urban Gardening

15.07.2016 | Event News

SIGGRAPH2016 Computer Graphics Interactive Techniques, 24-28 July, Anaheim, California

15.07.2016 | Event News

Partner countries of FAIR accelerator meet in Darmstadt and approve developments

11.07.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

The Exception and its Rules

25.07.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Using Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Radiation to Process Fibre-Reinforced Components

25.07.2016 | Materials Sciences

Added bacterial film makes new mortar resistant to water uptake

25.07.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>