Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Mountaintop Mining Pollution Has Distinct Isotopic Fingerprint

16.08.2013
Three elements commonly found at elevated levels in an Appalachian river polluted by runoff from mountaintop coal mining have distinctive chemistries that can be traced back to their source, according to a Duke University-led study.

The distinctive chemistries of sulfur, carbon and strontium provide scientists with new, more accurate ways to track pollution from mountaintop mining sites and to distinguish it from contamination from other sources.

"Essentially, we found that these elements have unique isotopic fingerprints, meaning we can use them as diagnostic tools to quantify mountaintop mining's relative contribution to contamination in a watershed," said Avner Vengosh, professor of geochemistry and water quality at Duke's Nicholas School of the Environment.

The newly identified tracers will be especially useful in watersheds with more than one source of potential contamination, he said. "Because they allow us to distinguish if contaminants are coming from natural sources, fracking and shale gas development, coal mining, coal ash disposal, or other causes."

Vengosh and his team's findings were published today in the online edition of the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Science & Technology.

The researchers measured the chemical and isotopic compositions of water samples collected monthly from 23 locations along West Virginia's Upper Mud River and its tributaries between May and December 2012.

They found that the isotopic signatures of sulfur (in sulfate), carbon (in dissolved inorganic carbon) and strontium from water samples collected from tributaries adjacent to mountaintop mining sites are distinguishable from those collected from unaffected upstream waters. They also found that the strontium isotope ratio is a sensitive tracer for selenium contamination, one of the major pollutants of mountaintop mining.

In mountaintop mining, companies use explosives and heavy machinery to clear away surface rocks and extract shallow deposits of high-quality coal. The companies typically dispose of the waste rock in adjacent valleys, where they bury existing headwater streams.

Previous studies by the Duke team and others have shown that runoff from these "valley fills" contains elevated levels of salts and selenium, a known fish toxin. The contamination can persist and accumulate in downstream waters for decades after active mining stops and the fills are reclaimed.

By conducting tests that simulated the natural leaching of contaminants from local rocks, Vengosh and his team were able to characterize the chemistry of the different geological formations that end up as waste rock in these fills. They found significant differences in strontium isotope ratios and selenium concentrations in streams flowing from reclaimed valley fills versus those flowing from active fills.

"This helps us further pinpoint the source of contamination by linking it directly to the type of rocks in the valley fills," Vengosh said.

The Upper Mud River flows through sparsely populated areas of southern West Virginia as a headwater stream. For about 10 kilometers, the river passes through the Hobet 21 surface mining complex, which has been active since the 1970s and is among the largest in the Appalachian coalfields.

Vengosh's co-authors were Ty Lindberg, Brittany Merola, Nathaniel Warner, Alissa White, Gary Dwyer and Richard Di Giulio, all of Duke's Nicholas School, and Laura Ruhl of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Ruhl received her Ph.D. from Duke in 2012.

Funding for the study came entirely from the Nicholas School of the Environment.

"The Isotopic Imprints of Mountaintop Mining Contaminants," Avner Vengosh, T. Ty Lindberg, Brittany R. Merola, Laura Ruhl, Nathaniel R. Warner, Alissa White, Gary S. Dwyer and Richard T. Di Giulio. Environmental Science & Technology, August 15, 2013 DOI: 10.1021/es4012959

Tim Lucas | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.duke.edu

More articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation:

nachricht Value from wastewater
16.08.2017 | Hochschule Landshut

nachricht Species Richness – a false friend? Scientists want to improve biodiversity assessments
01.08.2017 | Carl von Ossietzky-Universität Oldenburg

All articles from Ecology, The Environment and Conservation >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

Im Focus: Scientists improve forecast of increasing hazard on Ecuadorian volcano

Researchers from the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and the Instituto Geofisico--Escuela Politecnica Nacional (IGEPN) of Ecuador, showed an increasing volcanic danger on Cotopaxi in Ecuador using a powerful technique known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR).

The Andes region in which Cotopaxi volcano is located is known to contain some of the world's most serious volcanic hazard. A mid- to large-size eruption has...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New thruster design increases efficiency for future spaceflight

16.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Transporting spin: A graphene and boron nitride heterostructure creates large spin signals

16.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

A new method for the 3-D printing of living tissues

16.08.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>