As described in ASM International's Advanced Materials & Processes magazine, the limestone captures the sulfur oxides as they are formed, while the low burning temperature minimizes the formation of nitrogen oxides.
The fuel and limestone particles are recycled over and over back to the process, which results in high efficiency for burning the fuel, capturing pollutants, and for transferring the fuel’s heat energy into high quality steam to produce power.
Due to the vigorous mixing, long burning time, and low temperature of the combustion process, CFBs are fuel flexible, which means they can cleanly burn traditional coal fuels, as well as “carbon neutral” biomass and waste fuels. This ability to cleanly burn virtually any combustible material greatly surpasses the fuel limitation of conventional combustion processes.
Unlike conventional steam generators, CFBs capture and control harmful pollutants during the burning process and do not need to rely on add-on pollution control equipment. In addition, Foster Wheeler Power Group, Clinton, N.J., has applied highly efficient vertical-tube, supercritical steam technology to their utility-scale CFB designs. Supercritical steam enables more of the fuel’s energy to be transferred to the steam. This improves power plant efficiency, reducing the amount of fuel needed for electricity production and further reducing emissions.
Due to its ability to burn carbon-neutral fuels such as biomass along with coal, CFB technology offers a unique solution to the CO2 issue. Biomass is considered carbon neutral since it absorbs and stores carbon from the atmosphere during its growth cycle through the natural photosynthesis process. When biomass is burned, it releases the same carbon back to the atmosphere, resulting in nearly zero net carbon emitted to the atmosphere. However, due to the world’s limited and undeveloped biomass supply chain, existing biomass power plants are limited to about 25 to 50 MWe in size. The plant’s small scale, coupled with its fuel supply limitation, translates into electricity costing about 20 to 30% more than that from conventional fossil power plants.
Again, the CFB offers a solution. Due to its fuel flexibility, a large scale (300 MWe or larger) CFB power plant can be built to burn a combination of coal and several types of biomass. This solution captures both the environmental benefit of reducing CO2 emissions, and the economic benefit of providing affordable electricity. It is also flexible enough to utilize more biomass when it is available, or fall back on coal when it is not. This concept can produce a substantial reduction in CO2 emissions.
The entire article, written by Robert Giglio and Justin Wehrenberg of the Foster Wheeler Power Group, Clinton, N.J., was published originally in the May 2009 issue of Advanced Materials & Processes magazine and may be accessed free of charge at www.asminternational.org/amp.
Rego Giovanetti | Newswise Science News
Litter is present throughout the world’s oceans: 1,220 species affected
27.03.2017 | Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung
International network connects experimental research in European waters
21.03.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB)
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
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