A special online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), released May 21-25, explores the exotic world of high pressures as a window to understand a broad range of problems in Earth and planetary science.
The papers originated from a May 2006 workshop entitled "Synergy of 21st Century High-Pressure Science and Technology," sponsored by the Carnegie/DOE Alliance Center and organized by Carnegie’s Geophysical Laboratory scientists Ho-kwang (Dave) Mao and Russell J. Hemley*. As the 2005 Balzan Prizewinners, the duo also discussed the subject at the Balzan Distinguished Lecture on May 16, 2007, at the Institut de Physique du Globe, Paris.
"There is a rich history surrounding certain fundamental questions, such as how materials deep within the Earth rise as plumes, and what happens happened to plates as they push against each other and dive below others to great depths," explained Hemley. "But it’s just recently that we’ve been able both to produce the ultrahigh pressures found in the deep Earth and to harness tools that can measure the changes in matter in this extreme environment."
The articles in this issue of PNAS detail some of the profound alterations of earth and planetary materials under these extreme conditions, as well as new findings in seismology and geodynamics that require these new data for their interpretation. The articles provide insights into the inner workings of the planet, and explain new high-pressure techniques that are moving this research forward apace. "It’s a new era for both Earth and planetary sciences," Hemley added.
The special edition of the PNAS features 15 articles on high-pressure geoscience. The subjects include what causes deep earthquakes, as well as how tiny, micro- to nanometer-size minerals can reveal physical and chemical process of the deep Earth. Surprising findings about an elusive zone nearly 1,800 miles below the surface near the planet’s core, called the D'' layer, are also described. Additionally, observations in seismology are compared with mineral data from the laboratory and first-principles theory. There are also details of techniques that can potentially be used to study the even higher pressures and temperature of the interiors of giant planets, such as Jupiter.
Although the special edition focuses on the Earth and planetary sciences, the broad future of high-pressure was reflected in the workshop. The studies are creating new classes of materials, contributing to our understanding of the planets outside our solar system, and revealing how life may have originated.
Russell Hemley | EurekAlert!
Modeling magma to find copper
13.01.2017 | Université de Genève
What makes erionite carcinogenic?
13.01.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration
"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...
Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.
Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering
16.01.2017 | Information Technology
16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering