Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Pollution knows no borders

12.12.2006
Plumes of ozone-producing pollution routinely cross political boundaries, influence local regulatory efforts and impact health and the environment, according to a team of atmospheric chemists trying to trace ozone in the lower atmosphere.

"There is a connection between pollution in Mexico City and in Houston, Texas," says Dr. Anne M. Thompson, professor of meteorology, Penn State. "The spring, which is the end of the dry season, is the beginning of field burning. That is when the winds move toward the U.S. so that Houston gets an added boost of ozone into their cycle."

Thompson and a large team of researchers carries out a program launching ozonesondes in experiments that measure ozone and other variables in the atmosphere. The ozonesonde instrument packages are carried into the air by weather balloons. Recently, Thompson's team tested the air in the Mexico City area and Houston, Texas, and in Richland, Wash. Pollution in Mexico City affects U.S. Gulf Coast areas including Houston. Richland is affected by pollution coming across the Pacific Ocean from Asia.

The airborne instruments measure temperature, relative humidity, elevation, location -- if a geographic positioning system instrument is aboard – and ozone. The balloons reach an altitude of between 22 and 25 miles before they explode due to decreased pressure and the instrument package falls to Earth and shatters. Ozone is manufactured in the atmosphere by sunlight working on a combination of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, all chemicals created by burning organic fuels. Ozone can be either a good chemical or a pollutant, depending on where it occurs in the atmosphere. In the upper atmosphere, ozone provides a shield against the suns ultra violet radiation, but in the lower atmosphere, it is a pollutant that causes health problems and can damage crops. "In August, over Mexico City, we recorded a level of 150 parts per billion of ozone," Thompson told attendees at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco, today (Dec. 11). "In the U.S., the standard is 80 parts per billion averaged over eight hours."

With the Mexican/Houston experiment, the researchers did find a link between ozone levels in the Mexico City area and levels a few days later in Houston on a number of occasions. The effect was strongest in March when Mexico City air was stagnant and the normal air flow is northeast toward Houston. The researchers have not completed analysis of the Richland experiment.

Tracking ozone transport and pollution are not as simple as finding a pollution source and tracking it. Natural factors play into the equation. "Summer rains are supposed to wash pollution out of the air," says Thompson. "But, because of lightning and pollution pumped up by thunderstorms, measurements over Mexico were still high in August."

Lightning occurs more frequently in the tropics than in other areas of the globe. The high amounts of energy released by a lightning strike or a cloud-to-cloud lightning flash produces nitric oxide, a chemical that leads to ozone formation. The amount of ozone produced can be significant and is related to the level of lightning activity.

Information from only a few locations will not supply sufficient data to understand global ozone production.

"Each time we send a balloon up, we lose the package," says the Penn State scientist. "Each package is $1,000."

A'ndrea Elyse Messer | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.psu.edu

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Fossil coral reefs show sea level rose in bursts during last warming
19.10.2017 | Rice University

nachricht NASA finds newly formed tropical storm lan over open waters
17.10.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Electrode materials from the microwave oven

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

New material for digital memories of the future

19.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods

19.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>