Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Measuring wind patterns

22.04.2004


On hearing the word, “radar”, we usually think of speed controls or air traffic control systems. In fact, there are many kinds of radar and applications thereof.



At Punta Galea in Getxo the Climatology and Meteorology Office of the Basque Government has installed a very special kind of radar: a radar that indicates the patterns of winds; wind patterns at up to 3,000 metres altitude indicating its direction and speed. This is what is special about the radar at Punta Galea.

In normal operation mode, the average wind patterns are obtained every 25 minutes and, moreover, the temperature is measured every 30 minutes. In order to obtain data about winds, the radar sends microwave pulses towards the sky in five directions by means of a multidirectional broadcasting aerial. One of these microwave beams is directed vertically, to the zenith; the other four towards the four cardinal points. Small variations in the atmosphere produce echoes and some of the pulses are reflected back to the radar antenna, where they are detected. The differences in frequency between the waves received and the waves emitted are processed and analysed by the computer and we obtain a representation of the wind pattern with its speed and direction at different altitudes. The interpretation of these results is the job of the researchers and technicians.


Normally wind data is obtained up to 3,000 metres altitude but this altitude varies according to atmospheric conditions. The temperature, on the other hand, measured combining the radar echoes with the emission of acoustic signals, has a lower limit, between 700 and 1,000 metres altitude.

All this data is received both in the Climatology and Meteorology Office and in the Atmosphere Environment Group at the School of Engineering on the Bilbao campus of the University of the Basque Country. Amongst the studies carried out by this research group are those relating to the presence of high-altitude ozone pockets above the Bilbao area, in concentrations that could not be due, in principle, to local emissions. Combining the data obtained from the wind pattern radar device with meteorological models for studying the conditions of ozone movement and direction models, it has been possible to demonstrate the transport of ozone over long distances. Thus, it has been confirmed that, in certain meteorological conditions, the ozone registered over the Basque Country, apart from being produced locally, may come from two other sources: one directly from Britanny and the other from the Ebro river valley, to the south, after passing over the south-west of France and Tarragona respectively, and picking up more ozone precursors.

It should be remembered that ozone is fundamental to life when it is at higher levels of the atmosphere but is dangerous to the health when found at lower levels. This is why it is important to know its patterns of movement and transport.

Eneko Imaz | Basque research
Further information:
http://www.basqueresearch.com/berria_irakurri.asp?Gelaxka=1_1&Berri_Kod=453&hizk=I

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht In times of climate change: What a lake’s colour can tell about its condition
21.09.2017 | Leibniz-Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB)

nachricht Did marine sponges trigger the ‘Cambrian explosion’ through ‘ecosystem engineering’?
21.09.2017 | Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LaserTAB: More efficient and precise contacts thanks to human-robot collaboration

At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.

Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

Im Focus: Ultrafast snapshots of relaxing electrons in solids

Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!

When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

“Lasers in Composites Symposium” in Aachen – from Science to Application

19.09.2017 | Event News

I-ESA 2018 – Call for Papers

12.09.2017 | Event News

EMBO at Basel Life, a new conference on current and emerging life science research

06.09.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

An international team of physicists a coherent amplification effect in laser excited dielectrics

25.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

LaserTAB: More efficient and precise contacts thanks to human-robot collaboration

25.09.2017 | Trade Fair News

Highest-energy cosmic rays have extragalactic origin

25.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>