“Today everyone is focused on reducing nutrient inputs to the sea in order to reduce eutrophication in the Baltic, but by helping nature itself to deal with the phosphorus that is discharged we can create a turbo effect in the battle against eutrophication,” says Anders Stigebrandt, Professor Emeritus at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
The idea of oxygenating dead sea bottoms comes from nature itself. The method of oxygenating the deep water in the Baltic can be compared to creating wetlands on land. Both methods are based on creating the conditions required for ecosystem services by establishing new ecosystems that can effectively bind the nutrients.
“If oxygen-free bottoms in the Baltic are oxygenated, it can be anticipated that every square kilometre of bottom surface will be able to bind 3 tonnes of phosphorus in a short time, which is a purely geochemical effect. If the bottoms are then kept oxygenated for a prolonged period, fauna becomes established on and in the bottoms. This leads to the bottom sediments being oxygenated down to a depth of several centimetres, and the new ecosystem probably contributes to the possibility of further phosphorus being bound to the sediment.”
The research project Baltic Deepwater Oxygenation, directed by Stigebrandt, is testing the hypothesis that prolonged oxygenation of the Baltic deep water results in long-term and increasing binding of phosphorus in bottom sediment. An important question to be answered is how the oxygenated deep-water areas can bind phosphorus in the longer term. The answers are being sought through pilot studies in Byfjorden on the west coast and Kanholmsfjärden on the east coast, as well as in laboratory experiments. The project includes examining how the oxygenated bottoms are colonised and how this affects phosphorus uptake.
Stigebrandt is now planning a trial involving large-scale wind-driven pumping in the open water of the Baltic, in cooperation with Inocean AB, which is designing the pump on the basis of established technology from the off-shore industry. The pump is contained in a 60 metres high and 100 metres deep tubular buoy which is anchored in an open location, in a deep basin yet to be decided off the east coast of Sweden. As a result of the buoy being given a small cross-sectional area at the water surface, the pump becomes non-sensitive to wave motions.
“The pump is to have capacity to pump 30 cubic metres of water per second, which is 15 times more than the pump in the Byfjord experiment. If this works, using a five times larger pump in a buoy around 120 metres deep should not pose major problems. This is the size we anticipate pumps needing to have in a future large-scale system for oxygenation of the Baltic deep water," says Stigebrandt.
Helena Aaberg | idw
Predicting unpredictability: Information theory offers new way to read ice cores
07.12.2016 | Santa Fe Institute
Sea ice hit record lows in November
07.12.2016 | University of Colorado at Boulder
In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
08.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
08.12.2016 | Health and Medicine
08.12.2016 | Life Sciences