Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

NASA's GPM Satellite's Find Before Hurricane Simon Was Caught Rapidly Intensifying

09.10.2014

Hurricane Simon appeared to be keeping a secret before it rapidly intensified on Oct. 4, but the Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM satellite was able uncover it.

On Oct. 4 at 0940 UTC (5:40 a.m. EDT) observations by the Ku-band radar on the GPM satellite suggested that the Eastern Pacific Ocean's Hurricane Simon was hiding a very compact eyewall hours before the National Hurricane Center detected rapid intensification of Simon's surface winds. The GPM satellite was launched in February of this year and is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.  


On Oct. 4 at 0940 UTC (5:40 a.m. EDT) GPM observations suggested Hurricane Simon was hiding a very compact eyewall hours before detection of rapid intensification of Hurricane Simon's surface winds.

Image Credit: NASA/JAXA, Owen Kelley

"This eyewall, a hollow ring of intense storms, had a diameter too small to be detected by other satellite instruments or with real time wind analyses that blend together such satellite observations," said Owen Kelley of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Kelley analyzed the GPM data. "The intense convective cells (small, intense, short-lived rainstorms) that sometimes occur in compact eyewalls are known to be able to cause rapid intensification of hurricanes, but such small features are only easy to detect with radar."  That basically means radar-equipped aircraft or the GPM satellite must fly over the storm. 

The NOAA P-3 aircraft did fly through Hurricane Simon on Oct. 4, but only after the National Hurricane Center determined that rapid intensification had already occurred.

In the coming years, GPM will enable scientists to study such unusual meteorological situations and may improve our understanding of hurricanes and of other kinds of severe storms. The GPM satellite will collect observations from a vast, but intermittent, sample of interesting meteorological situations, such as Hurricane Simon.

The GPM satellite will collect observations from the Arctic to the Antarctic circles and everything in between over the next three years, and perhaps longer. GPM will see features of the world's weather that otherwise might remain undetected.

At 5 a.m. EDT (2 a.m. PDT) on Oct. 4 the National Hurricane Center reported that Hurricane Simon was unable to form an eyewall that completely circled the eye because of a gap on the northeast side.  Operational wind analyses that may have guided this statement were done at 11 p.m. on Oct. 3 and 3 a.m. PDT on Oct. 4. Those analyses showed a radius of maximum wind that was moderately large, 47 to 52 km (29 to 43 miles).

At 2:40 a.m. PDT, the GPM satellite saw that Hurricane Simon had a very compact eyewall. The eyewall had a radius of merely 10 km (6.2 miles) and hid a powerful convective cell. "The convective rain cell contained a 45 dBZ radar-reflectivity signal that reached 6.4 km (3.9 miles) altitude which is unusually high for such a strong signal in a hurricane eyewall," Kelley said.

Compact eyewalls can increase the chance of rapid intensification because there is so little air trapped in the eye of the hurricane.  The small volume of air in a small eye is easier to heat with the energy released when rain forms in the eyewall. Ultimately, this energy lowers the surface air pressure under the eye, and in response, the circling winds speed up at the ocean's surface.

At 8 a.m. PDT, the National Hurricane Center reported that rapid intensification had occurred and that a small eye was visible.  At 10:20 a.m. PDT the NOAA P-3 aircraft flew through Hurricane Simon and reported that the maximum winds were 10 km away from the center of the eye, which suggests that the very compact eyewall that GPM had observed at 2:40 a.m. had persisted and may have been Hurricane Simon's primary eyewall (the region of maximum wind speed) throughout this period.

This aircraft overflight was the first time that the NOAA P-3 had flown through Hurricane Simon, making the GPM overflight earlier that day the only prior radar "fix" on Hurricane Simon's "heat engine," its eyewall and eye.  A detailed analysis would be needed to figure out how all of these observations illuminate Hurricane Simon's rapid intensification.

GPM data courtesy of NASA and JAXA. 

For more information, visit: www.nasa.gov/gpm

Rob Gutro | Eurek Alert!

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht Impacts of mass coral die-off on Indian Ocean reefs revealed
21.02.2017 | University of Exeter

nachricht How much biomass grows in the savannah?
16.02.2017 | Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Impacts of mass coral die-off on Indian Ocean reefs revealed

21.02.2017 | Earth Sciences

Novel breast tomosynthesis technique reduces screening recall rate

21.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Use your Voice – and Smart Homes will “LISTEN”

21.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>