Deformation bands in the gravel layers of the Eisenstadt-Sopron Basin form as a result of heterogeneous displacement in the surrounding sediment. This is caused by gradients in the deformation intensity, which occur both parallel and perpendicular to a fault. These findings from a project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) will help scientists to reach a better understanding of both basic geological processes and the formation and structure of oil and water reservoirs.
As impressively demonstrated by the Himalayas and Pacific oceanic trenches, tectonic forces can really get things moving. However, even these dramatic geological manifestations move just a few millimetres or centimetres per year. Other phenomena associated with geological forces, known as deformation bands, are also subject to movement on a similar scale. These bands arise in soft porous rocks, such as sandstone. They occur where coarse-grained rocks are displaced by the shear forces of the overlying or underlying rock horizons, or undergo a change in volume. In contrast to what is known as a fault, in which the layer of rock ruptures, in the deformation bands, sediment grains are merely fractured or reorganised. The porosity of the rock and, therefore, its permeability to fluids, changes as a result of this process. Deformation bands thus contribute to the formation and structure of oil or water reservoirs. Attaining a better understanding of their effect on the surrounding rock is the aim of a project being carried out at the Department for Geodynamics and Sedimentology at the University of Vienna.IT'S ALL ABOUT THE GRAIN!
In the deformation bands examined as part of this project, the ratio between the displacement of the layers of rock pushing against each other and the length of the deformation bands is striking. These ratios, which range from 1:100 to 1:10, are unusually large. According to Dr. Exner, this could facilitate the generation of reverse drag.
Despite the fact that the processes studied by Dr. Exner unfold below the surface of the earth, her work is of direct and practical relevance to everyday life above ground: deformation bands mainly form in porous rock which, due to the presence of numerous pores, also acts as a reservoir for oil or water. Deformation bands alter porosity and can therefore influence the extraction of oil or water. Moreover, the relevance of this FWF project also extends to heavenly heights: the calcareous sandstone, also referred to as Leithakalk (Miocene limestone found in Central Europe), from which St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna is built, originates from the Eisenstadt-Sopron Basin. Its porosity - and thus also its response to environmental impacts and protective measures - is also influenced by deformation bands.
Data were presented at the "European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010", 2.-7. May in Vienna, Austria.
Marta Korinkova | PR&D
Sediment from Himalayas may have made 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake more severe
26.05.2017 | Oregon State University
Devils Hole: Ancient Traces of Climate History
24.05.2017 | Universität Innsbruck
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy