Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Cool roofs in China offer enhanced benefits during heat waves


New Berkeley Lab study uses regional climate model to compare heat waves to normal summer conditions

It is well established that white roofs can help mitigate the urban heat island effect, reflecting the sun's energy back into space and reducing a city's temperature under normal weather conditions. In a new study of Guangzhou, China, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) researchers working with Chinese scientists found that during a heat wave, the effect is significantly more pronounced.

The greater urban area of Guangzhou is outlined in the center of each figure. A midday urban heat island effect is clearly visible. The results of increased roof albedos are shown in the bottom row.

Credit: Berkeley Lab

Using a regional climate model combined with an urban model that allowed researchers to adjust roof reflectance, they found that the average urban midday temperature was lowered by 1.2 degrees Celsius (2.2 degrees Fahrenheit) during heat waves, or 50 percent more than the 0.8 degrees Celsius reduction for typical summer conditions.

The study, "Cool Roofs in Guangzhou, China: Outdoor Air Temperature Reductions during Heat Waves and Typical Summer Conditions," was published recently in the journal Environmental Science & Technology. The authors were Berkeley Lab researchers Dev Millstein, Ronnen Levinson, and Pablo Rosado; and Meichun Cao and Zhaohui Lin of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing.

"The hotter it is, the more cooling you get with cool roofs--and it is a significant difference, compared to the margin of error," said Millstein. "We found that the stagnant conditions of a heat wave, where the air is just sitting over the city, was one of the main factors."

Reflective roofs, also called cool roofs, save energy by keeping buildings cooler, thus reducing the need for air conditioning. Hot surfaces such as dark roofs that warm the outside air contribute to the urban heat island effect. Previous Berkeley Lab research in China found that cool roofs could substantially reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in climate zones with hot summers.

The reasons for studying heat waves have to do with both health and energy. "That's when reducing the hottest temperatures can have the most health benefit," Millstein said. "It's also when the electric grid is the most stressed. Air conditioners are running at full speed and with no break, so a small change on the margin can have a bigger impact."

In addition to reducing city temperatures more during a heat wave, the researchers also found that cool roofs can decrease the intensity of the urban heat island effect more during extreme conditions. "Looking at the average difference in temperature between every grid cell in the city and the adjacent rural area, cool roofs had a more dramatic effect during heat waves," Millstein said.

Guangzhou is a sprawling megacity in southern China, near Hong Kong, with a population of more than 8.5 million. Researchers simulated conditions from six of the strongest historical heat waves over the last decade, and compared them to 25 typical summer weeks between 2004 and 2008.

For the purposes of the study, the researchers made all the roofs in the city as reflective as an aged white roof. While it is unlikely that will ever occur, it was necessary to have a statistically significant signal. A government policy, Millstein said, would likely be necessary to encourage use of cool roofs.

"It wouldn't have to be all at once, just as they're replaced," he said. "That's one of the reasons we think so much about cool roofs--because it's free or inexpensive to put a cool roof on when you're putting a new roof on anyway."


The research was funded by DOE's Building Technologies Office, through the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE), the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. The researchers used the computing facilities of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addresses the world's most urgent scientific challenges by advancing sustainable energy, protecting human health, creating new materials, and revealing the origin and fate of the universe. Founded in 1931, Berkeley Lab's scientific expertise has been recognized with 13 Nobel prizes. The University of California manages Berkeley Lab for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. For more, visit

DOE's Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit

Media Contact

Julie Chao


Julie Chao | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: Cool roofs Energy Research heat waves temperature waves

More articles from Earth Sciences:

nachricht UCI and NASA document accelerated glacier melting in West Antarctica
26.10.2016 | University of California - Irvine

nachricht Ice shelf vibrations cause unusual waves in Antarctic atmosphere
25.10.2016 | American Geophysical Union

All articles from Earth Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Etching Microstructures with Lasers

Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.

This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...

Im Focus: Light-driven atomic rotations excite magnetic waves

Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Greater Range and Longer Lifetime

26.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VDI presents International Bionic Award of the Schauenburg Foundation

26.10.2016 | Awards Funding

3-D-printed magnets

26.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

More VideoLinks >>>