Scientists often can discern pertinent details about meteorites -- when they struck, how large they were, the angle they approached Earth and other information -- by measuring the diameter and volume of the impact crater.
Maar craters, which form when fissures of magma beneath Earth’s surface meet groundwater, causing volcanic explosions, are not as telling, scientists say. The possibility of multiple explosions at varying depths led most scientists to believe that measuring a maar’s size is not the best way to gauge the energy of individual explosions or determine future hazards.
UB geologist Greg A. Valentine, PhD, and other volcano researchers found instead that examining a maar’s shape and the distance it ejects magma, ash and other debris to be a more accurate barometer of the eruption’s force. The findings are important, he said, because they could assist scientists in estimating how big future volcano eruptions might be.
“It’s something that, up until this point, had only been suspected,” said Valentine, a professor of geology and lead author of the Geophysical Research Letters paper. “The simulations we did prove that crater diameter is not a good indicator of explosion energy for these volcanoes.”
The scientists drew their conclusions on a series of UB-funded experiments conducted last summer at a test site in Ashford, N.Y. They built three test beds of gravel, limestone and asphalt. In the first experiment (see the video below) one charge of TNT and plastic explosive was detonated.
In subsequent experiments, the charge was divided into three parts and detonated individually at different depths. The final dimensions of each crater were about the same. That matters, according to Valentine, because it shows that it’s easy to overestimate the energy of explosions if one assumes that the crater comes from one blast, not several.
The dispersal of ejected material differed depending on the location of the charge. For example, the first experiment launched debris more than 50 feet from the crater. Debris from subsequent experiments simulating blasts further underground mostly went up in the air and fell back into the crater or around its rim. As a result, it forced dusty gas -- like the ash that shut down air travel in Iceland and beyond in 2010 -- into the surrounding air. This can be seen in the video below.
Although the experiments provided valuable information, Valentine said they were similar to a practice run. More detailed experiments are being planned for the near future, he said.
Related information:Simulating Volcano Eruptions, One Blast at a Time
Cory Nealon | Newswise Science News
New Link Between Ocean Microbes and Atmosphere Uncovered
22.05.2015 | University of California, San Diego
Scientists tackle mystery of thunderstorms that strike at night
21.05.2015 | National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
Physicists have developed an innovative method that could enable the efficient use of nanocomponents in electronic circuits. To achieve this, they have developed a layout in which a nanocomponent is connected to two electrical conductors, which uncouple the electrical signal in a highly efficient manner. The scientists at the Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel have published their results in the scientific journal “Nature Communications” together with their colleagues from ETH Zurich.
Electronic components are becoming smaller and smaller. Components measuring just a few nanometers – the size of around ten atoms – are already being produced...
Development and implementation of an advanced automobile parking navigation platform for parking services
To fulfill the requirements of the industry, PolyU researchers developed the Advanced Automobile Parking Navigation Platform, which includes smart devices,...
The world's first electrical car and passenger ferry powered by batteries has entered service in Norway. The ferry only uses 150 kWh per route, which...
On Tuesday, 19 May 2015 the research icebreaker Polarstern will leave its home port in Bremerhaven, setting a course for the Arctic. Led by Dr Ilka Peeken from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) a team of 53 researchers from 11 countries will investigate the effects of climate change in the Arctic, from the surface ice floes down to the seafloor.
RV Polarstern will enter the sea-ice zone north of Spitsbergen. Covering two shallow regions on their way to deeper waters, the scientists on board will focus...
Nanoengineers at the University of California, San Diego developed a gel filled with toxin-absorbing nanosponges that could lead to an effective treatment for skin and wound infections caused by MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), an antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This "nanosponge-hydrogel" minimized the growth of skin lesions on mice infected with MRSA - without the use of antibiotics. The researchers recently published their findings online in Advanced Materials.
To make the nanosponge-hydrogel, the team mixed nanosponges, which are nanoparticles that absorb dangerous toxins produced by MRSA, E. coli and other...
20.05.2015 | Event News
18.05.2015 | Event News
12.05.2015 | Event News
22.05.2015 | Materials Sciences
22.05.2015 | Information Technology
22.05.2015 | Materials Sciences