Scientists often can discern pertinent details about meteorites -- when they struck, how large they were, the angle they approached Earth and other information -- by measuring the diameter and volume of the impact crater.
Maar craters, which form when fissures of magma beneath Earth’s surface meet groundwater, causing volcanic explosions, are not as telling, scientists say. The possibility of multiple explosions at varying depths led most scientists to believe that measuring a maar’s size is not the best way to gauge the energy of individual explosions or determine future hazards.
UB geologist Greg A. Valentine, PhD, and other volcano researchers found instead that examining a maar’s shape and the distance it ejects magma, ash and other debris to be a more accurate barometer of the eruption’s force. The findings are important, he said, because they could assist scientists in estimating how big future volcano eruptions might be.
“It’s something that, up until this point, had only been suspected,” said Valentine, a professor of geology and lead author of the Geophysical Research Letters paper. “The simulations we did prove that crater diameter is not a good indicator of explosion energy for these volcanoes.”
The scientists drew their conclusions on a series of UB-funded experiments conducted last summer at a test site in Ashford, N.Y. They built three test beds of gravel, limestone and asphalt. In the first experiment (see the video below) one charge of TNT and plastic explosive was detonated.
In subsequent experiments, the charge was divided into three parts and detonated individually at different depths. The final dimensions of each crater were about the same. That matters, according to Valentine, because it shows that it’s easy to overestimate the energy of explosions if one assumes that the crater comes from one blast, not several.
The dispersal of ejected material differed depending on the location of the charge. For example, the first experiment launched debris more than 50 feet from the crater. Debris from subsequent experiments simulating blasts further underground mostly went up in the air and fell back into the crater or around its rim. As a result, it forced dusty gas -- like the ash that shut down air travel in Iceland and beyond in 2010 -- into the surrounding air. This can be seen in the video below.
Although the experiments provided valuable information, Valentine said they were similar to a practice run. More detailed experiments are being planned for the near future, he said.
Related information:Simulating Volcano Eruptions, One Blast at a Time
Cory Nealon | Newswise Science News
Researchers find higher than expected carbon emissions from inland waterways
25.05.2016 | Washington State University
Rutgers scientists help create world's largest coral gene database
24.05.2016 | Rutgers University
A biological and energy-efficient process, developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck, converts nitrogen compounds in wastewater treatment facilities into harmless atmospheric nitrogen gas. This innovative technology is now being refined and marketed jointly with the United States’ DC Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water). The largest DEMON®-system in a wastewater treatment plant is currently being built in Washington, DC.
The DEMON®-system was developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck 11 years ago. Today this successful technology has been implemented in about 70...
Permanent magnets are very important for technologies of the future like electromobility and renewable energy, and rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for their manufacture. The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg, Germany, has now succeeded in identifying promising approaches and materials for new permanent magnets through use of an in-house simulation process based on high-throughput screening (HTS). The team was able to improve magnetic properties this way and at the same time replaced REE with elements that are less expensive and readily available. The results were published in the online technical journal “Scientific Reports”.
The starting point for IWM researchers Wolfgang Körner, Georg Krugel, and Christian Elsässer was a neodymium-iron-nitrogen compound based on a type of...
In the Beyond EUV project, the Fraunhofer Institutes for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen and for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are developing key technologies for the manufacture of a new generation of microchips using EUV radiation at a wavelength of 6.7 nm. The resulting structures are barely thicker than single atoms, and they make it possible to produce extremely integrated circuits for such items as wearables or mind-controlled prosthetic limbs.
In 1965 Gordon Moore formulated the law that came to be named after him, which states that the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every one to two...
Characterization of high-quality material reveals important details relevant to next generation nanoelectronic devices
Quantum mechanics is the field of physics governing the behavior of things on atomic scales, where things work very differently from our everyday world.
When current comes in discrete packages: Viennese scientists unravel the quantum properties of the carbon material graphene
In 2010 the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for the discovery of the exceptional material graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms...
24.05.2016 | Event News
20.05.2016 | Event News
19.05.2016 | Event News
27.05.2016 | Awards Funding
27.05.2016 | Life Sciences
27.05.2016 | Life Sciences