Scientists often can discern pertinent details about meteorites -- when they struck, how large they were, the angle they approached Earth and other information -- by measuring the diameter and volume of the impact crater.
Maar craters, which form when fissures of magma beneath Earth’s surface meet groundwater, causing volcanic explosions, are not as telling, scientists say. The possibility of multiple explosions at varying depths led most scientists to believe that measuring a maar’s size is not the best way to gauge the energy of individual explosions or determine future hazards.
UB geologist Greg A. Valentine, PhD, and other volcano researchers found instead that examining a maar’s shape and the distance it ejects magma, ash and other debris to be a more accurate barometer of the eruption’s force. The findings are important, he said, because they could assist scientists in estimating how big future volcano eruptions might be.
“It’s something that, up until this point, had only been suspected,” said Valentine, a professor of geology and lead author of the Geophysical Research Letters paper. “The simulations we did prove that crater diameter is not a good indicator of explosion energy for these volcanoes.”
The scientists drew their conclusions on a series of UB-funded experiments conducted last summer at a test site in Ashford, N.Y. They built three test beds of gravel, limestone and asphalt. In the first experiment (see the video below) one charge of TNT and plastic explosive was detonated.
In subsequent experiments, the charge was divided into three parts and detonated individually at different depths. The final dimensions of each crater were about the same. That matters, according to Valentine, because it shows that it’s easy to overestimate the energy of explosions if one assumes that the crater comes from one blast, not several.
The dispersal of ejected material differed depending on the location of the charge. For example, the first experiment launched debris more than 50 feet from the crater. Debris from subsequent experiments simulating blasts further underground mostly went up in the air and fell back into the crater or around its rim. As a result, it forced dusty gas -- like the ash that shut down air travel in Iceland and beyond in 2010 -- into the surrounding air. This can be seen in the video below.
Although the experiments provided valuable information, Valentine said they were similar to a practice run. More detailed experiments are being planned for the near future, he said.
Related information:Simulating Volcano Eruptions, One Blast at a Time
Cory Nealon | Newswise Science News
NASA covers Super Typhoon Maysak's rainfall, winds, clouds, eye
01.04.2015 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Typhoons rain away wrath
01.04.2015 | Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University
Spring is here and ectotherms, or animals dependent on external sources to raise their body temperature, are becoming more active. Recent studies have shown...
Glass-fronted office buildings are some of the biggest energy consumers, and regulating their temperature is a big job. Now a façade element developed by Fraunhofer researchers and designers for glass fronts is to reduce energy consumption by harnessing solar thermal energy. A demonstrator version will be on display at Hannover Messe.
In Germany, buildings account for almost 40 percent of all energy usage. Heating, cooling and ventilating homes, offices and public spaces is expensive – and...
Outstanding chemical, thermal and tribological properties predestine silicon carbide for the production of ceramic components of high volume. A novel method now overcomes the procedural and technical limitations of conventional design methods for the production of components with large differences in wall thickness and demanding undercuts.
Extremely hard as diamond, shrinking-free manufacturing, resistance to chemicals, wear and temperatures up to 1300 °C: Silicon carbide (SiSiC) bundles all...
In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as...
The IPH presents a solution at HANNOVER MESSE 2015 to make ship traffic more reliable while decreasing the maintenance costs at the same time. In cooperation with project partners, the research institute from Hannover, Germany, has developed a sensor system which continuously monitors the condition of the marine gearbox, thus preventing breakdowns. Special feature: the monitoring system works wirelessly and energy-autonomously. The required electrical power is generated where it is needed – directly at the sensor.
As well as cars need to be certified regularly (in Germany by the TÜV – Technical Inspection Association), ships need to be inspected – if the powertrain stops...
25.03.2015 | Event News
19.03.2015 | Event News
17.03.2015 | Event News
01.04.2015 | Earth Sciences
01.04.2015 | Information Technology
01.04.2015 | Physics and Astronomy