It’s no secret that earthquakes come in all sizes with varying degrees of damage depending on the geographic locations where they occur. And even a small one on the Richter scale that strikes in an impoverished nation can be more damaging than a larger one that occurs in a city where all buildings have been designed to a stricter building code.
According to Charney, attaining acceptable structural performance is a problem even when the current building codes are used as intended for the structural design.
“In my opinion, the current building codes are insufficient because buildings designed according to these codes have evolved only to avoid collapse under very large earthquakes. These same buildings, subjected to smaller, more frequent earthquakes, may have excessive damage, as happened during the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. I tell my students that good performance for these buildings is not in their DNA,” Charney said.
In the future, structural engineers will base their designs on the concepts of Performance Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE), where the objective is to control damage and provide life-safety for any size of earthquake that might occur. Charney and Singh said they are developing a variety of new structural systems that “will inherently satisfy PBEE standards, yet have negligible damage when subjected to frequent earthquakes, acceptable damage from moderate earthquakes, and a low probability of collapse during the rare, severe earthquake.” To achieve their goal, they are creating four new PBEE compliant systems called hybrid yielding, standard augmented, advanced augmented, and collapse prevention systems.Charney explained the hybrid yielding system is an improved configuration of an existing system. The key aspect of this enhanced system is that certain components in a structure are designed to yield sooner than what would occur in a traditional system, and other components are designed to yield later. By controlling the sequence of yielding, the dissipation of the seismic energy that comes with the early yielding should allow the structure to meet low-level and mid-level performance requirements, and the residual stiffness provided through delayed yielding will enhance life safety under larger earthquakes.
The standard augmented system will provide an enhanced performance because it utilizes devices called visco-elastic solid or viscous fluid dampers to help control vibrations. “The additional damping provided by these devices is intended to enhance a system’s performance primarily at the mid-level limit states,” Charney said.The third system, the advanced augmented, uses the damping devices in conjunction with special metallic yielding devices. “Typically the combination of the devices is two-phased, with the yielding component only engaging after a certain deformation occurs in the damping component,” Charney said.
He described the last system, the collapse prevention system, as “being analogous to an air bag in a car”. This system is completely passive until it is needed. It is designed for use in situations where the damage associated with frequent or occasional earthquakes is negligible, but a total structural collapse cannot be tolerated.
The researchers said all four new designs have common features; they improve structural integrity by limiting residual deformations, controlling dynamic stability, and minimizing the uncertainty in predicting response.
To complete all of this work, Charney says he will develop a computer program that will automatically set up and execute all of the structural analysis required for assessing compliance with the next generation of PBEE. Potentially, he will be analyzing hundreds of thousands of mathematical models of buildings, using one of Virginia Tech’s supercomputers. Charney and Singh have three Ph.D. degrees and several master’s students working on these projects. The project team is called VT-ACES, where ACES stands for Advanced Concepts in Earthquake-engineered Systems.
Charney is the author of Seismic Loads, a Guide to the Seismic Load Provisions of ASCE 7 published in 2010 by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). He is a regular seminar speaker for ASCE on the subject of earthquake engineering. In addition, he has developed two educational earthquake engineering computer programs NONLIN and EQ-Tools. These programs, used worldwide, have been recently updated though a grant received from the Building Seismic Safety Council.The College of Engineering (http://www.eng.vt.edu/) at Virginia Tech is internationally recognized for its excellence in 14 engineering disciplines and computer science. The college's 6,000 undergraduates benefit from an innovative curriculum that provides a "hands-on, minds-on" approach to engineering education, complementing classroom instruction with two unique design-and-build facilities and a strong Cooperative Education Program. With more than 50 research centers and numerous laboratories, the college offers its 2,000 graduate students opportunities in advanced fields of study such as biomedical engineering, state-of-the-art microelectronics, and nanotechnology. Virginia Tech, the most comprehensive university in Virginia, is dedicated to quality, innovation, and results to the commonwealth, the nation, and the world.
* Disaster management: A complex world brings new vulnerabilities(http://www.vtnews.vt.edu/articles/2009/12/2009-943.html)
* Assessing the seismic hazard of the central-Eastern United States (http://www.vtnews.vt.edu/articles/2011/01/010611-engineering-greenearth.html)This story can be found on the Virginia Tech News website:
Lynn A. Nystrom | VT News
Modular storage tank for tight spaces
16.03.2017 | FIZ Karlsruhe – Leibniz-Institut für Informationsinfrastruktur GmbH
Smart homes will “LISTEN” to your voice
17.01.2017 | EML European Media Laboratory GmbH
The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.
Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...
The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...
Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.
Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...
Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment...
Glaciers might seem rather inhospitable environments. However, they are home to a diverse and vibrant microbial community. It’s becoming increasingly clear that they play a bigger role in the carbon cycle than previously thought.
A new study, now published in the journal Nature Geoscience, shows how microbial communities in melting glaciers contribute to the Earth’s carbon cycle, a...
20.04.2017 | Event News
18.04.2017 | Event News
03.04.2017 | Event News
21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.04.2017 | Health and Medicine
21.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy