Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Avoiding a “Secondary Disaster” Due to Recovery Plans: Japanese Society from the Perspective of the Seawall Issue

29.09.2014

Opinion article by Assistant Professor Takeshi Hiroshige of Waseda University on issues surrounding the seawall construction plans proposed by the Japanese government.

The nationwide issue of seawall plans


Seawall under construction along the Nonoshita coast in Motoyoshi-cho, Kesennuma (9.8m above sea level)


Planned site for seawall construction along the Nakajima coast in the Koizumi District of Motoyoshi-cho, Kesennuma (planned to be 14.7m above sea level)

In the coastal areas ravaged by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, current consensus-building between the government-driven construction of giant seawalls and local residents calling for a review of these plans has become bogged down. This seawall issue is concerning massive public works projects into which about one trillion yen of taxes will be pumped, but it is also about the future shape of the coastline of a large portion of Japan, since the improvement policy will become the model of a countermeasure to a Nankai Trough earthquake. Viewed from these aspects, the problem goes beyond the disaster-stricken areas. Furthermore, considering this seawall issue also provides another major issue that needs to be addressed by post-disaster Japanese society.

The origin and problems of seawall plans

The problem stems from the Japanese government’s very broad post-disaster classification of tsunami into two sizes, “frequent tsunamis,” commonly called level 1 (L1) tsunamis, which occur roughly once every several decades to one hundred years plus several decades, and “maximum class tsunamis” like the one in 2011, commonly called level 2 (L2) tsunamis, which occur about once every one thousand years, and its notification to local governments on how to set the height of their seawalls to deal with L1 tsunamis.

Nevertheless, the planned seawall to defend against L1 tsunamis at Kesennuma in Miyagi Prefecture is a gigantic concrete wall with a maximum height of about 15 meters and a width of around 100 meters, extending several hundreds of meters along the seashore (Nakajima coast in Koizumi District.) As the plan became known, some residents, researchers and supporters have begun to voice a range of worries and concerns, such as its adverse effect on tourism and inshore fishing, reduced disaster awareness due to being unable to see the ocean, a decline in seaside lifestyle and culture, and its negative impact on the ecosystem.

Local communities and the seawall issue

Having listened to these voices, the government is making changes such as lowering the height in some places where they decide there are no assets behind the seawall that should be protected. But opinions on what should be protected vary even among fellow residents depending on where they live, how they make a living, and so on. Also, creating a pleasant community where people will want to live and visit in the future requires an overall perspective of what kind of town to build, including the use of land behind the seawall.

In this way, solutions to the seawall issue should address both urban planning and the future of local communities. Local residents would, under normal circumstances, discuss the future of their town thoroughly and decide the location, height, shape, and the like of a seawall taking into account the opinions of experts, neighboring communities, and other parties concerned. Not only is it the wrong way round for the government to unilaterally draw up blueprints for a seawall and then ask residents for their consent, it is also likely to harm personal relationships in the earthquake-hit region by creating intra-community conflict between supporters and opponents of the plan.

The seawall issue and the modern day

If we consider the direct damage caused by an earthquake as a “primary disaster,” we can call the above difficulties facing residents in a planned region a “secondary disaster” created by the process of recovery and restoration work. Behind this, we can see two very modern politico-economic ideologies, one-dimensional economism which disregards the real circumstances of communities and believes that prioritizing development leads to human happiness, and centralism which emphasizes top-down decision-making.

There is no doubt that, since World War Two, Japan has pursued economic growth while aiming for both a market economy founded on the principle of freedom and a welfare policy founded on the principle of equality, from which we have all reaped many benefits. The flip side of this is our social vulnerability, which has been exposed by the destruction of regional communities and the natural environment and especially when large-scale natural disasters have hit urban areas. Today, out of regret for this, volunteers guided by the principle of solidarity and mutually supportive local communities are expected to supplement the limitations of our government and the market. Looking at this historical course, it is easy to predict that seawall plans led either by a national government or a quake-hit local municipality with limited public finances will eventually become difficult to sustain and place an excessive burden on communities.

Setting up a committee by the national government

To resolve the seawall issue, therefore, it is important to create a forum led by residents and incorporating concerned parties to discuss, even at this late stage, a comprehensive future regional vision including seawalls. In fact, the Maehama District of Motoyoshi-cho, Kesennuma, an area buzzing with community activities since before the tsunami, decided at the end of this July to set up its own tsunami defense plan independently from government proposals.

Regarding the law, too, a revision of the Coast Act in June of this year has permitted the establishment of a committee to discuss coastal disaster prevention and mitigation measures if deemed necessary by the state minister in charge and prefectural governors. To strengthen national resilience, it is important before we build concrete walls to cultivate regional personal relations that will enable a more flexible response to disasters. If the new Abe cabinet inaugurated in September positions earthquake reconstruction and regional revitalization as priority issues for Japan, they should give positive consideration to setting up such a committee.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Takeshi Hiroshige
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Social Sciences, Waseda University

Professor Hiroshige was born in 1976. He graduated from the Faculty of Business and Commerce, Keio University before earning a PhD from the Graduate School of Social Sciences, Waseda University. From 2012 until the present, he has been coordinator of the “Coastal Laurel Forest and Community-Building Support Program,” a Great East Japan Earthquake reconstruction aid project organized by the Hirayama Ikuo Volunteer Center, Waseda University (WAVOC). He served as Assistant at Takasaki City University of Economics before taking up his position as Assistant Professor on the Faculty of Social Sciences, Waseda University in 2014. His area of specialization is social philosophy.

He is the coauthor of Volunteer Theory: The Principles and Practice of Coexistence [Borantia ron: Kyosei no Rinen to Jissen] (editor: Masakatsu Tamura, Minerva Shobo, 2009). His published papers include “A Study on the Phase of “Life‐World” : Examining Environmental Volunteer and Nature from the Perspective of Phenomenology [‘Seikatsu Sekai’ no Iso ni kansuru Kosatsu: Genshogaku no Shiten kara mita Kankyo Borantia to Shizen]” (2013) and “A Study on the Recovery Process from the Great East Japan Earthquake:The Case of Maehama Area of Motoyoshi town, Kesennnuma city and its Support Activity [Higashi Nihon Daishinsai kara no Fukkokatei ni kansuru Ichikosatsu: Kesennumashi Motoyoshicho Maehama chiku no Torikumi to sono Shienkatsudo o Jirei toshite]” (2014).

Associated links

Waseda University | Research SEA News
Further information:
http://www.researchsea.com

Further reports about: Disaster Japanese Tsunamis earthquake reconstruction seawalls

More articles from Architecture and Construction:

nachricht Smart homes will “LISTEN” to your voice
17.01.2017 | EML European Media Laboratory GmbH

nachricht Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes
16.01.2017 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE

All articles from Architecture and Construction >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New Study Will Help Find the Best Locations for Thermal Power Stations in Iceland

19.01.2017 | Earth Sciences

Not of Divided Mind

19.01.2017 | Life Sciences

Molecule flash mob

19.01.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>