The accession to the European Union (EU) ten years ago was for the Finnish agriculture and food sector an unprecedented rapid shift from closed and regulated markets to open and more competitive ones. Finnish farmers faced a change in output prices, relative prices and direct support which were of exceptional magnitude compared to that of any other country which had ever joined the EU. Commitment to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) lowered the producer price level in Finland by 40-50% right at the beginning of 1995.
On market prices alone, the survival of Finnish agricultural production would have been very difficult. A comprehensive package of compensatory payments was therefore agreed to facilitate the adjustment. Various forms of support payments have played a central role during these first ten years in the EU in ensuring that Finnish agriculture succeeded in common EU markets. In 2004, support payments rose to €1.8 billion, which was 45% of the total return on agriculture and horticulture (€3.97 billion).
Despite the growth in direct payments, agricultural income has been falling in Finland. According to figures from MTT Agrifood Research Finland, agricultural income at fixed prices was almost 34% lower in 2004 than in 1994.
New technique reveals details of forest fire recovery
17.05.2018 | DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory
Mixed forests: ecologically and economically superior
09.05.2018 | Technische Universität München
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...
The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...
A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.
The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...
Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.
Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...
A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.
Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...
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18.05.2018 | Information Technology
18.05.2018 | Information Technology