Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Farmers don’t need a new superstar toxin to fight bugs

26.10.2004


A new Michael Jordan of toxins isn’t required to increase crop protection against bugs as long as the right genes are strategically placed to take their shots at destructive insects, researchers report.

Plants modified with protectant genes designed to kill resistant insects can extend the usefulness of currently used pest-control methods and delay the development of pesticide-resistant bugs, according to Purdue University scientists and their collaborators from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Monsanto Co., the University of Illinois and the University of California, Davis. The researchers’ findings appear in this month’s issue of the Journal of Theoretical Biology. "We always thought that it would take a Michael Jordan of toxins - a superstar of toxins to effectively halt insect resistance to the current generation of insecticides," said Barry Pittendrigh, a Purdue associate professor of entomology and lead author of the study. "We found that moderately effective genetically engineered protectants used in plants in the buffer zone around the main crops can play a major role in insect control, and they should be easier to identify than highly effective protectants. "You don’t find a superstar very often, but it may not be difficult to find good players, or worthwhile insect-control agents."

Farmers who use bioengineered crop protectants also use a buffer, or refuge, around the outside of fields that contains plants lacking the high-toxicity genetic modification in the main field that kills most insects. The refuge, usually about 20 percent of the acreage planted, delays development of insects resistant to the main-field, high-toxicity protectants, but some individuals in the destructive insect group have genes that allow them to survive.



Using a computer model, the scientists determined that within a refuge, one could add a moderate plant protectant, or journeyman player, that kills 30 percent to 50 percent of insects that carry a rare resistance gene. If developed to a practical level, equipping the refuge with a moderately toxic protectant gene could dramatically delay development of new resistant insects that could attack the main crop, Pittendrigh said. "When we first started this project, we didn’t believe that you could use a genetic toxin that was effective in killing a moderate number of resistant insects, so this finding was very surprising," he said.

Over time, insects exposed to specific plant protectants undergo genetic changes so the highly effective genetic toxins no longer affect them. This latest research suggests it may be easier than previously thought to find commercially viable protectants to control these resistant insects because moderate-toxicity protectant genes are much easier to discover than high-toxicity superstars. The specific problem the researchers attacked is that insects susceptible to the high-toxicity genetic protectant used in the main field crops can survive, breed and reproduce in the refuge. Farmers, who now use crops with high-toxicity protectant genes to fight bugs, don’t use those plants in the refuge. So the crops in the border area are susceptible to insect attack.

When susceptible insects from the refuge breed with each other or with resistant insects, the high-toxicity genetically protected plants in the main fields still kill most of the bugs’ offspring.

A moderately effective genetic modification inserted into crops specifically to kill resistant insects that survive in the refuge can lengthen the usefulness of the primary genetic protectant used in the main field, Pittendrigh said. These specially designed refuge-area protectants create a phenomenon called negative cross-resistance because the moderate-toxicity protectant kills the insects that are resistant to the primary protectant. "If we could discover and use moderately effective negative cross-resistance compounds in a refuge, it would work just like an oil filter in a car," Pittendrigh said. "Like the oil filter removing impurities, the refuge with negative cross-resistance protectants could eliminate many of the genetically resistant insects that otherwise might invade the main crop. "We used mathematical models to test this concept, and we were very surprised by the findings. Although these results are exciting, we are well aware that a number of issues must be addressed before this approach can become practically applicable."

The other researchers are Larry Murdock, Purdue entomology professor; Patrick Gaffney, formerly of the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Joseph Huesing, Monsanto Co. research entomologist; David Onstad, University of Illinois Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences; and Richard Roush, University of California, Davis.

The Purdue Department of Entomology provided the funding for this research.

Susan Steeves | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.purdue.edu

More articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science:

nachricht Climate change, population growth may lead to open ocean aquaculture
05.10.2017 | Oregon State University

nachricht New machine evaluates soybean at harvest for quality
04.10.2017 | University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

All articles from Agricultural and Forestry Science >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>